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Department of Public Instruction 

F.DUCATIONAL PUBLICATION 

Bulletin No. 25 



Uniform Course of Study for 

the High Schools of 

Indiana 



Issued by 

CHARLES A. GREATHOUSE 

STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

1916-1917 



Department of Public Instruction 



Uniform Course of Study for 
the High Schools of 

Indiana 2^^ 

(P 



Issued by 
CHARLES A. GREATHOUSE 

STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

1916-1917 



Fort Wayne Printing Co. 

Contractors for State Printing and Binding 

1916 



LB / <!o/3 



D. of D. 
SEP o 1915 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 5 

High School Inspector's Report 7 

North Central Association 8 

Program 10 

Laws and Rulings on High Schools 12 

Requirements for Graduation 13 

Classification of High Schools 16 

Adopted Text Books for High Schools 20 

Outline Course of Study 22 

College Entrance Requirements 23 

EngUsh, Aims 24 

Literature 27 

Course in Literature 29 

Supplementary Reading 30 

Composition and Rhetoric 31 

Grammar 31 

Course in Composition 33 

History and Civics 36 

History — 

Ancient History 38 

Mediaeval and Modern History 41 

United States History and Civics 42 

Civics 53 

Foreign Languages 60 

Latin 60 

Beginning Latin 60 

Caesar 67 

Cicero 69 

Vergil 72 

German 75 

Mathematics 84 

Algebra 84 

Geometry 87 

Commercial Arithmetic 90 

Science 94 

Botany 94 

Zoology 95 

Physics 96 

Chemistry 100 

Physical Geography 101 

Commercial Geography 109 

(3) 



4 Contents 

PAGE 

Pre-Vocational Work 115 

Pnu'tieal Arts 118 

Domestic Science 128 

Agriculture 162 

Music 1(53 

Drawing 170 

Comniissioiu>d High Scliools •. 172 

Certified Higli Schools 179 

Accredited High Schools 181 

Private Schools (Commissioned High School Rank) 182 

High School Library 184 

Reading Circle (Young People's) 184 



INTRODUCTION 

Two important facts stand out prominently in connection 
with the high schools of today: First the increasing numbers and 
second the gradual changing of the curriculum. In 1860 there 
were but 48 high schools in the U. S., today in Indiana alone there 
are more than 825. Commissioner Kendall of New Jersey says, 
"The recent growth of high schools in New Jersey, as well as else- 
where, has been rapid, almost phenomenal." Iowa reports that 
"The modern high school is having a tremendous growth." Similar 
statements come from other states, all of which indicate not only 
the increased number but also the value of the high school in the 
judgment of the people. As the last decade has witnessed the 
greater part of this remarkable growth, it remains for the coming 
decade to develop and make efficient the schools already estab- 
lished. It has been the policy of this department to advise town- 
ship trustees to establish and maintain, whenever possible, one 
good high school in each township. However, what is needed now 
is not ?nore but better high schools, schools that will serve the com- 
munity in which they are located in the best possible way. Schools 
that will return to the State 100 cents on every dollar spent on 
them in the way of developing pupils of character and patriotism, 
who can make not only a living but a life worth while. 

The great function of the high school, the function which when 
properly recognized, will make it an institution for all the children 
of all the people, is to afford each pupil who enrolls therein an op- 
portunity to discover himself. The modern school is therefore 
broadening its scope. It must continue to prepare the few for 
college, but it must also offer to the many who do not go to college 
some work and genuine culture which will serve as a foundation 
for the best lives they are capable of living. 

Referring further to the curriculum, President Charles W. 
Eliot says in discussing the Need of Sense Training, "The differ- 
ence between a good workman and a poor one in farming, mining or 
manufacturing is the difference between the man who possesses well- 
trained senses and good judgment in using them, and the man, who 
does not. The good hand-fisherman is the man who can feel cor- 
rectly what is going on at the fishhook out of sight, and can make 
his motor nerves react quickly to what he feels there. It is the 
blacksmith who has the sure touch with his hammer and the quick 
sight of the right tint on the heated drills who can sharpen three 

(5) 



6 Uniform Course of Study 

sets of quarryman's drills, while another man sharpens one." He 
claims that the immediate changes which ought to be made in the 
programmes of American Secondary schools in order to correct 
the glaring deficiencies of the present programmes are chiefly: 
The intruduction of more hand, ear and eye work, such as draw- 
ing, carpentry, turning, music, sewing, and cooking, and the giving 
of much more time to the sciences of observation, chemistry, 
physics, biology and geography. The sciences should be taught 
in the most concrete manner possible, that is in laboratories with 
ample experimenting done by the individual pupil with his own 
eyes and hands. He claims that agriculture should be the absorb- 
ing topic in the country secondary schools, and that in city schools, 
manual training should be given, which would prepare a boy for 
any one of many different trades, not by famiharizing him with 
the details of actual work in any trade, but by giving him an all- 
around bodily vigor, a nervous system capable of multiform co- 
ordinated efforts, a liking for doing his best in competition with 
his mates, and a widely applicable skill of eye and hand. 

And so the immediate duty not only of this department, but 
of all school men and women of the state is to provide a program 
for our high schools, that will not only give every pupil an op- 
portunity to find himself, but will also train him in the direction 
of his chosen fine of work and natural ability. 

Among the various reports that come from the field of high 
school activity in our state, no other one is quite so gratifying as 
that which indicates the hearty cooperation of township trustees 
and school boards with the teachers, county and city superinten- 
dents and the state department in bringing the high school up to a 
greater degree of efficiency. This is evidenced in many new build- 
ings, improvement of old ones, the employment of better prin- 
cipals and teachers and providing better equipment. This fine 
cooperation and effort for still better schools should manifest 
itself further in more adequate buildings, better libraries, properly 
organized and catalogued, placed in good cases and located in the 
general study room, that pupils may have free and easy access to 
same. 

Since strong teaching is the most important single point of 
excellence which a school can possess, and inasmuch as the future 
efficiency of the high school will be conditioned by the maturity, 
breadth of experience and strength of character that mark the 
faculty, all school officials should give very careful attention to 
the selection of teachers, principals and superintendents. 

Charles A. Greathouse. 



HIGH SCHOOL INSPECTOR'S REPORT 

The following statistics are taken from the State High School 
Inspector's report, submitted to the State Board of Education on 
June 20, 1916. 

ANNUAL REPORT— JUNE 20, 1916 
J. B. Pearcy, Inspector 

Number Commissioned High Schools 535 

Number Certified High Schools 127 

Number Accredited High Schools 45 

Number High Schools with no standing 117 



Total number of High Schools 824 

Number Private Schools with Commissioned High School Equivalency. 45 



Grand total 869 

422 Schools have been visited and reported upon this year as follows: 

48 Schools have received their first commission. 
188 Commissions that had expired have been reissued. 

66 Commissions have been renewed. 

57 Commissions have been continued. 



Total 359 



9 Schools have received their first Certificate. 
19 Certificates that had expired have been reissued. 

7 Certificates have been renewed. 
13 Certificates have been continued. 

1 Certificate was revoked. 



Total 49 

8 High Schools have been accredited for 3 years. 
6 High Schools have been accredited for 2 year >. 

Total 14 

Length of time the grades continue as compared ^\^th length of high 
school term. 

376 High Schools continue for a longer period than the grades of the 
same schools. 

28 High schools continue 2 months longer. 

27 High schools continue Ij months longer. 

(7) 



8 Uniform Course of Study 

281 High schools continue 1 month hunger. 
40 PTigrh schools continue 5 month longer. 

In 448 high schools both grades and high school have same length. 
Of the 53") Commissioned high schools, 200 countinue longer than the 
grades as follows : 

14 Continue 2 mouths longer. 
18 Continue 1| months longer. 
150 Continue 1 month longer. 
24 Continue § month longer. 
169 Commissions, Certificates and Acereditments expired June 30, 1916. 



NORTH CENTRAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGES AND 
SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

The standards by which secondary schools are accredited by 
this association are somewhat higher than those standards re- 
quired for Commission in this State. It will, therefore, doubtless be 
of general interest to know that 78 of Indiana's high schools are 
members of the above association. The following paragraphs 
from the last statistical report of this association give a very good 
idea of its purposes and requirements. 

"The aim of the North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools is, first, to bring about a better acquaintance, 
a keener sympathy, and a heartier cooperation between the col- 
leges and secondary schools of this territory; second, to consider 
common educational problems and to devise best ways and means 
of solving them; and third, to promote the physical, intellectual, 
and moral well-being of students by urging proper sanitary con- 
ditions of school buildings, adequate library and laboratory facili- 
ties, and higher standards of scholarship and of remuneration of 
teachers. The Association is a voluntary organization consisting 
of representatives of both secondary schools and colleges. It is 
devoted solely to the highest welfare of the boys and girls of this 
territory, and it bespeaks the cordial and sympathetic support of 
all school men." 

"T'/je efficiency of instruction, the acquired habits of thought and 
study, the general intellectual and moral tone of a school are para- 
mount factors, and therefore only schools which rank well in these 
particulars, as evidenced by rigid, thorough-going, sympathetic 
inspection, shall be considered eligible for the list." 

If any school desires further information relative to the stan- 
dards of this Association, write Prof. Hubert G. Childs, Inspector 
for Indiana, Bloomington, Indiana. 



(9) 



PROGRAM 

The daily program is a matter of great importance and should 
be given very careful consideration by those who are responsible 
for making it. It is impossible to suggest any sort of a program 
here that would be suited to all schools — as each unit has its own 
individual problems which must be considered in making the pro- 
gram. 

The plan of combining classes and alternation of work is to be 
used only where the number of pupils is too small to make a good 
class and where the number of teachers is limited. 

The inspection of high schools will be in the hands of the high 
school inspector, who will visit as many of the schools as possible. 

Reports will be called for early in the year and blanks sent for 
this purpose. These reports should be filled promptly and returned 
by the date suggested, as they form a basis for classification of 
schools. 

The hope of the department is that the high school inspector 
may be of assistance to the greatest number of schools, and ques- 
tions concerning the course or administration should be forwarded 
to this office. 

At the request of the County Superintendents' Association 
semiannual examination questions will be issued by this depar- 
ment. These questions are prepared by the committee from that 
association and their use is a matter of choice with the counties. 

The value of these examinations to this department will de- 
pend largely upon their widespread use, and the schools are asked 
to use them as a means of standardizing the course of study and 
character of work in all the high schools of the state. 

The Course of Study for 1916-1917 does not differ materially 
from that of last year. The outlines for the various subjects have 
been prepared by the authors of the various texts where there was 
an exclusive adoption under the operation of the 1913 law. 

These outlines are to be followed as a guide in using the adopted 
texts in the manner considered by the author as adapted to the 
best results. This of course does not mean that the teacher shall 
be limited thereby, but that constant endeavor shall be put forth 
to inject into the work the influence of personality and initiative. 

(10) 



Program 11 

Constant application should be made to local conditions and 
the work should be vitahzed in showing its value in application to 
the problems of the school, the community and life. 

The outline for the prevocational work has been modified to 
meet the present conditions. 

As indicated in the Course of Study, Domestic Science includes 
Sewing, Cooking, and all forms of home-making. 

Whatever portion of the work is undertaken should be done 
with regard to standards of quality rather than quantity. 

This work will be directed by the Vocational Division through 
the special bulletins which will outline the work in such a manner 
as to adapt it to the needs of the schools of various sizes. 

Questions regarding the minimum amount of work, or any 
variation from the course, should be taken up with the Vocational 
Division, Department of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. 



Uniform Course of Study for the Commissioned, 

Certified and Accredited High Schools 

of Indiana, 1916-1917 

(Adopted by the State Board of Education, and Pul)lish('d l)y the 
Department of Public Instruction.) 



HIGH SCHOOL STANDARDS 

The Law 

[Approved March 9, 1907. In force April 10, 1907.] 

Common Schools Defined — High School Courses. 1. The public 
schools of the State shall be and are defined and distinguished 
as (a) elementary" schools and (b) high schools. The elementary 
schools shall include the first eight (8) years of school work, and 
the course of study for such year (that) which is now prescribed 
or may hereafter be prescribed by law. The commissioned high 
schools shall include not less than four (4) years' work following 
the eight years in the elementary schools. The high school course 
in noncommissioned high schools shall be uniform throughout the 
State and shall follow a course to be established and amended or 
altered from time to time as occasion may arise, by the State 
Board of Education. 

High School Studies. The following enumerated studies shall 
be taught in all commissioned high schools throughout the State, 
together with such additional studies as any local board of edu- 
cation may elect to have taught in its high school: Provided, That 
such additions shall be subject to revision of the State Board of 
Education. Mathematics: Commercial arithmetic, algebra, 
geometry. History: United States, ancient, mediaeval or modern. 
Geography: Commercial or physical. English: Composition, 
rhetoric. Literature: English, Annnican. Language (foreign): 
Latin or German. Science: Biology, physics or chemistry. Civil 
government: General, state. Drawing. Music. 

[Approved February 22, 1913. In force May 1, 1913.] 

Vocational Education: 

Sec. 5. Elementary agriculture shall be taught in the grades 
in all town and township schools; elementary industrial work shall 

(12) 



High School Standards 13 

be taught in the grades in all city and town schools, and elementary 
domestic science shall be taught in the grades in all city, town and 
township schools. The state board of education shall outline a 
course of study for each of such grades as they may determine 
which shall be followed as a minimum requirement. The board 
shall also outline a course of study in agriculture, domestic science 
and industrial work, which they may require city, town and town- 
ship high schools to offer as regular courses. After September 1, 
1915, all teachers required to teach elementary agriculture, indus- 
trial work or domestic science shall have passed an examination 
in such subjects pi-opared by the State Board of Education. 



Action of the State Board of Education 

In harmony with the provisions .of the above law, the State 
Board of Education has taken the following action: 

(1) In rural, town, and city high schools of the State, a mini- 
mum requirement of one year's work of five recitations per week 
or the equivalent in domestic science and either agriculture or 
industrial work shall be maintained and no credit allowed in these 
subjects for less than the amount of work thus prescribed. 

(2) The law enumerating the studies which shall be taught in 
commissioned high schools is to be interpreted to mean that com- 
petent teachers of these branches must be regularly employed and 
prepared to teach the same to all pupils who may express a desire 
to receive such instruction. The intent of the law is not satisfied 
by declaring that there are no pupils in these subjects when no 
teacher has been previously employed. It is the duty of the schools 
to offer instruction in all of the subjects required by law. The 
question as to whether pupils elect to pursue studies is to be deter- 
mined subsequently to and not in advance of the organization of 
the school curriculum. 

(3) On and after September 1, 1912, all graduates from com- 
missioned high schools in Indiana must have done the following: 

First. Completed not less than 16 units of high school work. 
A unit is defined as a year's study of 5 periods a week for not less 
than 32 weeks, provided that, in schools where a course of not less 
than 9 months is maintained, 15 units shall be acceptable for 
graduation. 

Second. Of these 16 units (respectively 15 units) 9 shall be 
obtained in the following subjects: 



14 Uniform Course of Study 

English, 3 units. 

Foreign Language, 2 units. 

Mathematics, 2 units. 

Natural Science, I unit. 

History, 1 unit and 

7 (respectively 6) additional units to be taken in the above 
or other subjects, as the school authorities may deter- 
mine. 

In place of either two units of mathematics or two units of a 
foreign language, a substitution, if previously authorized by the 
State Board of Education, may be allowed of 2 units, consisting of 
a second unit of history and a second unit of natural science. 

The privilege of making such substitution for mathematics or 
foreign language is accorded by the State Board to pupils as indi- 
viduals, not in classes, and application for the same must come from 
the school authorities at the opening of the term. Blanks for this 
purpose are supplied by the Department of Public Instruction, on 
request. 

Application for substitution should be made early in the school 
year. 

(4) On December 17, 1912, the State Board of Education 
declared by resolution that the minimum length of the recitation 
period in a Commissioned and Certified High School shall be 
forty minutes. 

(5) On January 14, 1913, the State Board of Education de- 
clared by resolution that "not less than two periods of laboratory 
work shall be considered as equivalent to one period of recitation. 
It is recommended that the two periods of laboratory work be con- 
secutive periods and that two such double periods be used each 
week." 

(6) On January 22, 1915, The State Board of Education 
declared by resolution that "the State Department of Education be 
authorized on application of any Board of Trustees of any school, 
city or town or any Trustee of any school township to be permitted 
to give one-half unit of credit in the High School Course of Study 
for the Course of Bible Study conducted on a syllabus prepared by 
a joint committee of the Indiana Association of Teachers of 
English and the High School Section of the Indiana State Teachers 
Association and conducted under the rules prescribed by such 
syllabus to grant such school authorities the required permission." 



High School Standards 15 

(These syllabi may be secured by addressing the ''Echo Press," 
Shortridge High School, Indianapohs, Price ten cents per copy.) 

For further information and list of questions, address Supt. 
E. L. Rickert, President Board of Control, Connersville, Ind. 

(7) On May 6, 1915, the State Board of Education declared 
by resolution that "in all Township Commissioned and Certified 
High Schools the trustee shall employ teachers endorsed by the 
County Superintendent of Schools of the County in which said 
high schools are located." 

(8) On March 9, 1916, the State Board of Education declared 
by resolution: 

(a) "That the best interests of pupils of non-commissioned 
high schools require that no teacher attempt to teach more than 
two years work in any such schools. 

(b) "That should any township trustee require or permit any 
teacher to attempt to teach more than two years' work in any non- 
commissioned high school, pupils from such schools shall not be 
allowed advanced standing after October, 1916, in any certified 
or commissioned high school except upon a thorough and satisfac- 
tory examination in all subjects for which credit is desired. 

(c) "That any certified or commissioned high school that 
violates the above resolution shall forfeit its certificate or com- 
mission." 

(9) On March 9, 1916, the following report was adopted by 
the State Board of Education. 

'To The School Officials of Indiana: 

We, your committee appointed to confer with the State Board 
of Accounts regarding the purchase of supplementary books, desk 
books, and other necessary school book supplies, report that in the 
opinion of your committee: 

(1) Desk books used in the instruction of classes should be 
the property of the school rather than of the individual teacher, in 
order that the teacher's desk may be supphed at all times with the 
adopted books belonging to the grade or grades taught by such 
teacher. 

(2) The schools should require the purchase and use of the 
uniform text books adopted by the State Board of Education for 
use in the pubHc schools of the State. 

(3) Concerning the purchase of supplementary books, we 
believe that the best interests of the schools will be served by pro- 



16 Uniform Course of Study 

viding a reasoiiabU^ number of suitable books, that have been 
rccomniendcd l)y the State Board of Ediu^ation for such purpose. 
For the guidance of school officials, a price list, giving the names of 
the supplementary books recommended and the price thereof, will 
be prepared by the State Board of Education and mailed to school 
officials. In selecting such books the school board of the city or 
school town should secure the written approval of the city super- 
intendent or town superintendent and the school trustees of the 
townships should seciu'e the written approval of the county super- 
intendent as to amount, material and price of the books to be 
secured. Such written approval shall be on file in the office of the 
school boards and township trustees for the inspection of the 
field examiners of the State Board of Accounts. 

(4) In the purchase of maps, globes, encyclopedias, dic- 
tionaries, and charts, we recommend that the written approval of 
the county superintendents, in their respective counties for the 
townships and the cit}^ superintendents and town superintendents 
in the respective cities and towns, as to amount, material and 
price be obtained before any purchase is made. Such written 
approval shall be on file in the office of the school boards and town- 
ship trustees for the inspection of the field examiners of the State 
Board of Accounts. 

Also for the guidance of such school officials, the price list 
named above will give the names of the maps, globes, encyclo- 
pedias, dictionaries, charts, etc., and the price thereof that are 
recommended by the State Board of Education." 

The above is an exact copy of the minutes of March 9, 1916, 
of the State Board of Education. 

THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 
By Charles A. Greathouse, President, 
W. W. Parsons, Secretary. 

High Schools 

The high schools in Indiana are classified as follows: Com- 
missioned, Certified, and Accredited. 

I. Commissioned. Commissions are issued by the State 
Board of Education to high schools upon inspection, provided they 
meet the following requirements: 
a. Equipment. 

1. Building. — The ])uilding must be of size sufficient to 

meet the ne(>ds without crowding, it must be properly heated 

and lighted, and it must have sanitary toilets. 



High School Standards 17 

2. Library. — The lil^rary must be equipped with good, 
trustworthy encyclopedias, reference books and l)ooks on gen- 
eral literature. 

There must be enough books to meet the legitimate needs 
of good school work. The library must be a growing one, ad- 
ditions being made each year. 

3. Laboratories. — The laboratory must be fully equipped 
to do well the sciences taught in the school. The laboratory, 
like the library, must grow each year. 

h. Teaching and Teachers. 

1. Teaching. — The teaching in the high school and also in 
the grades below the high school must be good. 

2. Teachers. — At least two teachers must give all their 
time to high school work. One of the teachers in the high 
school must be a graduate of a standard four years' course in 
a standard college or a standard three years' course in a stan- 
dard normal school, or the equivalent. 

c. The Course of Study. 

1. Length. — The minimum length of the course is thirty- 
two months. A high school can not be commissioned until it 
has maintained an eight months' term for three consecutive 
years, and its commission can not become effective until the 
senior class has had thirty-two months of high school work. 

2. Subjects. — The course of study must provide for the 
subjects legally necessary, and such other subjects as local 
authorities deem advisable, and are approved by the State 
Board of Education. 

3. Continuity. — A few studies pursued one, two or three 
years are preferable to many studies taken for short periods. 
No science should be taught for a term of less than one year. 

4. Music and Drawing. — Provision must be made for sys- 
tematic instruction in each of these subjects for one period a 
week or the equivalent throughout the course. 

5. Agriculture or Industrial Training and Domestic Sci- 
ence must be taught five periods per week during one school 
year or the equivalent. 

6. College Entrance. — All courses that prepare for college 
should provide for at least three years of foreign language. 

2—5077 



18 Uniform Course of Study 

d. Records. 

1. Work. — Complete records must be kept, showing the 
academic progress of each pupil. 

2. Advanced Standing. — When a pupil is admitted from 
another school the record must show what standing was given 
and why. 

II. Certified. Certificates are issued by the State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction to high schools upon information given 
on blank reports sent out for that purpose, provided such informa- 
tion shows that the high schools meet the following requirements: 

a. Equipment. 

1. Building. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

2. Library. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

3. Laboratories. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

6. Teaching and Teachers. 

\. Teaching. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 
2. Teachers. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

c. The Course of Study. 

1. Length. — The minimum length of the course is twenty- 
eight months. A high school can not be certified until it has 
maintained a term of seven months for three consecutive years. 
And the certificate can not become effective until the senior 
class has had twenty-eight months of high school work. 

2. Subjects. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

3. Continuity. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

4. Music and Drawing. — (Same as for a commissioned 
school.) 

5. Agriculture, Industrial Training and Domestic Science. 
— (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

d. Records. 

1. Work. — (Same as for a commissioned school.) 

2. Advanced Standing. — (Same as for a commissioned 
school.) 

III. Accredited. Every child in the State is entitled to free 
school privileges in both elementary and secondary schools. School 
trustees are required to furnish the opportunity for such training. 
When no high school privileges are offered by a corporation the 



High School Standards 19 

trustee must grant transfers to pupils eligible to attend high school 
when requested to do so. 

There is a large number of noncommissioned high schools in 
the State that are doing excellent work. In order that they may 
accomplish much good, and to obviate the burden of indiscriminate 
transfers, the following plans are recommended: 

1. The principals of all the high schools in a county, both com- 
missioned and noncommissioned, should meet and arrange a course 
of study for the noncommissioned high schools which will enable 
pupils to do two or three years' work in the noncommissioned high 
schools, receive full credit for time spent and work done, enter a 
commissioned high school and complete the entire course in the 
same length of time that would have been required if all the work 
had been done in a commissioned high school. 

This arrangement, of course, would be possible only when the 
term of the noncommissioned high school is for eight months or 
more. 

2. In noncommissioned high schools having terms of less than 
eight months, arrangements should be made to have all high 
schools in the county begin at the same time, and the work of the 
noncommissioned high schools should be so planned that the 
pupils can do six or seven months' work in the home school, 
receive credit for same, and then arrange, if possible, to complete 
the year's work in a commissioned high school. 

Either of the foregoing plans will have the approval of the 
State Board of Education and such noncommissioned high 
schools, upon request, will be granted certificates of equivalency 
recognizing their work as the equivalent of the same amount of 
work done in a commissioned high school. 

3. In counties where co-operation as outhned above is not 
easily effected, the work of noncommissioned high schools which 
maintain satisfactory standards will receive from the State Board 
of Education certificates of equivalency recognizing the work done 
as the equivalent of the same amount of work done in a commis- 
sioned high school. In schools where one teacher does all the high 
school work, not more than two years' work should be included in 
the course. 



ADOPTED TEXT BOOKS FOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Contract Exchange 
Price Price 

Wells & Hart, New High School Algebra. D. C. 

Heath & Co $1 08 .$0 72 

Wentworth & Smith, Plane and Solid Geometry. 

Ginn & Company 1 17 78 

Webster's Ancient History. D. C. Heath & Co 1 35 90 

Harding's New Mediaeval and Modern History. 

American Book Co 135 90 

James & Sanford's American History. Chas. Scrib- 

ner's Sons 1 25 70 

Garner's Government in the United States. Ameri- 
can Book Co 90 60 

Thomas, Howe & O'Hair, Composition and Rhet- 
oric. Longmans, Green & Co 90 45 

Moody, Lovett & Boynton, First View of English 
Literature and First View of American Lit- 
erature (bound in one volume). Chas. Scribner's 
Sons 90 60 

D'Ooge, Latin for Beginners. Ginn & Company. . 90 60 

Walker's Caesar, 4-book edition. Scott, Foresman 

& Co 90 45 

Walker's Caesar, 7-book edition. Scott, Foresman 

& Co 1 13 75 

Johnston & Kingery's Cicero, 6 orations. Scott, 

Foresman & Co 90 45 

Johnston & Kingery's Cicero, 10 orations. Scott, 

Foresman & Co 113 75 

Knapp's Vergil. Scott, Foresman & Co 1 26 84 

Bennett's Latin Grammar. Allyn & Bacon 72 40 

Bennett's New Latin Composition, Complete. 

Allyn & Bacon 90 60 

Vos, Essentials in German. Henrj^ Holt & Co 80 54 

Walter & Krause, Beginner's German. Chas. Scrib- 
ner's Sons 90 60 

Dryer's High School Geographj^, Complete. Ameri- 
can Book Co 117 78 

(20) 



Adopted Text Books 21 

Contract Exchange 
Price Price 

Adams' Commercial Geography. D. Appleton & 

Co - $1 07 $0 53 

Modern Commercial Arithmetic. Lyons & Car- 

nahan 75 42 

Bergen & Caldwell, Practical Botany. Ginn & 

Company 1 22 78 

Coulter's Text Book of Botany. D. Appleton & Co. 1 03 51 

Coulter's Plant Life and Plant Uses. American 

Book Co 1 08 82 

Andrews' Practical Course in Botany. American 

Book Co 1 12 75 

Andrews' Practical Course in Botany with Flora. 

American Book Co 135 90 

Linville & Kelly's General Zoology. Ginn & Com- 
pany 1 41 90 

Davenport's Elements of Zoology. Macmillan Co. 97 66 

Colton's Descriptive and Practical Zoology. D. C. 

Heath & Co 1 35 90 

Jordan-Kellogg & Heath's Animal Studies. D. 

Appleton & Co 1 03 51 

Gorton's High School Course in Physics. D. Apple- 
ton & Co 1 03 51 

Black & Davis, Physics. Macmillan Co 1 10 75 

Hoadley's Elements of Physics. American Book 

Co 1 08 72 

Milhkan & Gale, A First Course in Physics (Revised). 

Ginn & Company 1 18 75 

Bradbury's Inductive Chemistry. D. Appleton & 

Co 1 03 51 

Brownlee's First Principles of Chemistry. Allyn & 

Bacon 1 13 75 

McPherson & Henderson. An Elementary Study of 

Chemistry. Ginn & Company 1 18. 75 

Hessler & Smith's Chemistry. Benj. Sanborn & Co. 1 13 75 



Oourvse ok t^UcLii, 



I^W rV&a,^ 3" Year .M'Year. 



3 l l-niTi Inquired 

TorciQf/ 



J On it l\e<juire«l 

f 1/(1 if ]|fl(iiiHfC(> 



M U 5 1 C 







Dow. SCt- Clr/^ 



A C h I c o I f u r e> 



Mujt'be o-Mcrecl Cry Q.W/ com-ry-wsbiovit^. 

••nol" J3 •n\e*fn. S*l«,^^ce -for ^irU. 
^«.«^•o^pa^t tirti^ wor/v. +ftr four ij€,«Lh S 

Note— U. S. History is;requi red unless both 1 yr. Ancient and 1 yr. Med. and 
Mod. are taken. 



College Entrance Requirements in Indiana 



Total for 
Entrance 


Eng. 


Math. 


For. 
Lang. 


Science 


Hist, and 
Civ. Draw. 


Elective 


I. u 


16 


3 


3 


3 or 


4 1 


1 





5 


Purdue .... 


15 


3 


2i or 3 2 




1 




5i 


Butler 


15 


3 


2i 


3 




1 




^ 


DePauw. . . 


15 


3 


2| 


3 





1 




61 


Earlham . . . 


15 


3 


2 


2 




1 




6 


Franklin . . . 


16 


3 


2 


2 




1 




7 


*Hanover . . 


15 


3 


3 


3 




1 




4 


Notre Dame 


. 16 


4 


2 


7 




2 







Wabash, . . . 


16 


3 


3 


3 




lin 




5 


St. Mary's 












G. H. 






College. . 


15 


4 


3 


6 


1 or 


2 1 or 2 . 








The above requirements were furnished by the president of 
each institution in June, 1916. 

Pupils planning to attend any particular college should write 
for specific information regarding the elective units they wish to 
offer for entrance. 

The requirements of the Indiana colleges are similar to those 
of other states. 



♦Drawing, music and industrial subjects are accepted as electiTes. 



(23) 



ENGLISH 

(Three Units Required. See page 14.) 



The Enghsh course in the high school should accomplish defi- 
nite results in the ability of the pupil to observe and study ac- 
curately, to speak fluently and logically, and to write so as to 
convey thought clearly and in the best language. 

There is a tendency in the high school to neglect the oral ex- 
pression of the pupils and place the entire emphasis upon written 
work. It is, therefore, recommended that more attention be given 
to oral reading and that an outline in public speaking be made to 
correlate with the English work, and aid the pupils in expressing 
themselves readily and easily in public. This course should not 
have for its aim the making of finished public speakers, but an 
education that will give to the student, voice control, good car- 
riage, ease in oral expression, and an ability to think quickly and 
respond readily in conversation. 

It is also recommended that constant attention be given by the 
English teacher to correlating the English work with the other 
subjects of the curriculum, and with modern life. 

AIMS IN ENGLISH 

Outline^ 

7. In general, the immediate aim of secondary English is two- 
fold: 

(a) To give the pupil command of the art of expression 

in speech and in writing. 
(5) To teach him to read thoughtfully and with appre- 
ciation, to form in him a taste for good reading, and 
to teach him how to find books that are worth while. 

These two aims are fundamental; they must be kept in mind 
in planning the whole course and applied in the teaching of every 
term. 



'Tliis outline here considerably modified, was originally prepared by Allan Abbott, 
of the Horace Mann School, Columbia University, and appeared in the English Journal 
for October, 1912. It is recommended by the N. E. A. Committee on Reorgani/.atio" 
of Secondary Education. 

(24) 



English 25 

//. Expression in speech includes: 

(a) Ability to answer clearly, briefly, and exactly a ques- 
tion on which one has the necessary information. 
(6) Ability to collect and organize material for oral dis- 
course. 

(c) Abihty to present with dignity and effectiveness to a 

class, club, or other group material already or- 
ganized. 

(d) Ability to join in a conversation or an informal dis- 

cussion, contributing one's share of information or 
opinion, without wandering from the point and 
without discourtesy to others. 

(e) Ability (for those who have or hope to develop quali- 

ties of leadership) to address an audience or con- 
duct a pubUc meeting, after suitable preparation 
and practice, with proper dignity and formality, but 
without stiffness or embarrassment. 
(/) Ability to read aloud in such a way as to convey to the 
hearers the writer's thought and spirit and to interest 
them in the matter presented. 

Note.— All expression in speech demands distinct and natural articulation, correct 
pronunciation, the exercise of a sense for correct and idiomatic speech, and the use of 
an agreeable and well-managed voice. The speaker should be animated by a smcere 
desire to stir up some interest, idea, or feehng in his hearers. 

III. Expression in writing includes: 

(a) Ability to write a courteous letter according to the forms 
in general use, and of the degree of formality or 
informality appropriate to the occasion. 

(6) Ability to compose on the first draft a clear and read- 
able paragraph or series of paragraphs on familiar 
subject-matter, with due observance of unity and 
order and with some specific detail. 

(c) Ability to analyze and present in outline form the gist 

of a lecture or piece of literature, and to write an 
expansion of such an outline. 

(d) Ability, with due time for study and preparation, to 

plan and work out a clear, well-ordered, and inter- 
esting report of some length upon one's special in- 
terests — literary, scientific, commercial, or what not. 

(e) Ability (for those who have Uterary tastes or ambi- 

tions) to write a short story or other bit of imagi- 
native composition with some vigor and personality 



26 Uniform Course of Study 

of style and in proper form to be submitted for 
publication, and to arrange suitable stories in form 
for dramatic presentation. 

Note. — All expression in writing demands correctness as to formal details, namely, 
legilile and Arm handwriting, correct spelling, correctness in grammar and idiom, and 
oljitiervance of the ordinary rules for capitals and marks of punctuation; the writer 
should make an effort to gain an enlarged vocabulary, a concise and vigorous style, and 
firmness and flexibility in constructing sentences and paragraphs. 

IV. Knowledge of books and power to read them thoughtfully 
and with appreciation includes: 

(a) Ability to find pleasure in reading books by good au- 
thors, both standard and contemporary, with an 
increasing knowledge of such books and increasing 
ability to distinguish what is really good from 
what is trivial and weak. 

(6) Knowledge of a few of the greatest authors, their 
lives, their chief works, and the reasons for their 
importance in their own age and in ours. 

(c) Understanding of the leading features in structure 

and style of the main literary types, such as novels, 
dramas, essays, lyric poems. 

(d) Skill in the following three methods of reading, and 

knowledge of when to use each: 

(1) Cursory reading, to cover a great deal of 

ground, getting quickly at essentials. 

(2) Careful reading, to master the book, with 

exact understanding of its meaning and 
implications. 

(3) Consultation, to trace quickly and accu- 

rately a particular fact by means of indexes, 
guides, and reference books. 

(e) The habit of weighing, line by line, passages of expecial 

significance, while other parts of the book may be 
read but once. 
(/) The power to enter imaginatively into the thought of 
an author, interpreting his meaning in the light 
of one's own experience, and to show, perhaps, by 
selecting passages and reading them aloud, that the 
book is a source of intellectual enjoyment. 

Note. — All bookwork should be done with a clear understanding on the student's 
part as to what method of read ng he is to use and whicli of the purposes mentioned 
above is the immediate one. To form a taste for good reading it is desirable that a 
considerable part of the pupil's outside reading be under direction. To this end lists 
of recommended books should be provided for cacli grade or term. These lists should 
be of considerable length and variety, to suit individual tastes and degrees of maturity. 



Literature 27 

V. The kinds of skill enumerated above are taught for three 
fundamental reasons: 

(a) Cultural. To open to the student new and higher 

forms of pleasure. 

(b) Vocational. To fit the student for the highest success 

in his chosen calling. 

(c) Social and ethical. To present to the student noble 

ideals, aid in the formation of his character, and 
make him more efficient and actively interested in 
his relations with and service to others in the com- 
munity and in the nation. 

Note. — These fiindainental aims should be impUcit in the teacher's attitude and 
in the spirit of the class work, but should not be expUcitly set forth as should the im- 
mediate aim of each class exercise. 

That the work in English may cultivate habits of accuracy, 
develop appreciation of the beauty of language, and secure to the 
pupil an enlargement and an enrichment of the ideals of life, it is 
advisable that each teacher of the subject consciously emphasize 
three distinct phases of English instruction, i. e., (1) Literature; 
(2) Grammar; (3) Composition. 

LITERATURE 

One field that the English course designs to cultivate is literary 
appreciation. In developing this, the essential thing is the com- 
prehension of the selection as a whole, — its theme, its spirit, its 
vital reaction. As a means of securing this, special attention 
must be given to memory assignments; to the meanings of words, 
phrases, and figures; to the explanation of allusions; to the study 
of character; to the development of the plot; to the re-creation of 
sensory effects, and to the vitality of subjective reaction. All dic- 
tionary work and all analytic processes must, however, be wisely 
subservient to the desired end. On the pupil's way to the ultimate 
goal — appreciation — an over-minute consideration of detail must 
not cloud; a lack of consideration of detail must not impede. 

In the literature work, as well as in the composition work, there 
is constant insistence on accuracy. To secure this, the student 
must often surrender himself to severe task assignments. He will 
learn that the highest joy in his work comes in conquering difficul- 
ties rather than in loitering through primrose paths of dalliance. 
Some of the severe discipline of Hfe may wisely be learned in the 
high school. 



28 Uniform Course of Study 

Throughout the entire Enghsh course emphasis is laid upon 
memory assignments. As Matthew Arnold suggests, these memor- 
ized selections may be happily used in measuring the worth of 
other poetry. Nor should the assignment be limited to verse form; 
wisely selected prose passages thoroughly memorized may secure 
a ready response in the learner's style. The help which memory 
work offers the spirit is likewise apparent. It gives the student 
standards of moral judgment. The course should direct toward 
the development of character. 

Constantly the literature period allows the emphasis upon 
principles of conduct. Lessons in patriotism, courtesy, sincerity, 
the honest performance of the daily task, — these may direct 
toward the highest work of the school — the development of a 
sterling character. 

The successful following of these principles' implies that the 
teacher of literature should be thoroughly imbued with a love of 
literature and an understanding of life. He should cultivate that 
large and sympathetic view which veers away from narrowness and 
directs toward the universal. He should seek constantly to store 
his mind with knowledge that may at will be summoned to inter- 
pret and impart the thoughts in the assigned selection. Intelligent 
appreciation and such a skill in imparting as will arouse the inter- 
est and enthusiasm of pupils are pedagogical requisites in efficient 
English teaching. 

Specific Suggestions 

1. Consider the selection as a whole. 

2. Insist upon good oral reading. 

3. Encourage outside reading. 

4. See that new words mastered in the literature lesson re- 
occur in the pupil's composition. 

5. Encourage discussion that will bring out individual opin 
ions. Show respect for these opinions. 

6. Try to make the selection leave a definite impression upon 
the mind of each pupil. 

7. Call attention to words that give strong sensory impres- 
sions — words that make appeals to the sense of sight, hearing, 
feeling, odor, taste. 

8. Assign definite i)assages of prose and poetry for memory 
work. 

9. Emphasize those topics that tend to develop strength of 
character. 



THE COURSE IN DETAIL 
First Year 

First Term — 

Franklin : "Autobiography." 

Longfellow: "Tales of the Wayside Inn" and other narrative 

poems. 
Dickens: "Christmas Carol." 

Second Ttertn — 

Scott: "Marmion." 

Hawthorne: "Twice Told Tales." 

Irving: "Sketch Book." 

Second Year 
First Term — 

Macaulay: "Lays of Ancient Rome." 
Washington: "Farewell Address." 
Shakespeare: "Midsummer Night's Dream." 

Second Term — 

Stevenson: "Treasure Island." 
Burns: "Cotter's Saturday Night." 
Goldsmith: "Deserted Village." 

Third Year 
First Teryn — 

Addison: "Sir Roger de Coverl}^ Papers." 
Lowell: "Vision of Sir Launfal." 
Burroughs: "Birds and Bees." 

Second Term — 

Dickens: "Tale of Two Cities." 
Tennyson: "Idylls of the King." 

Fourth Year 
First Term — 

Milton: Minor Poems. 
Shakespeare: "Macbeth." 

Second Term — 

Byron: "Childe Harold." 
Lincoln: "Gettysburg Address." 
Lowell: "Present Crisis." 

(29) 



30 Uniform Course of Study 

A study of the history of American and English Literature 
should accompany the study of the classics. (Text: Moody, 
Lovett and Boynton.) 

SUPPLEMENTARY READING 

I 

Hale: "A Man Without a Country." 

Gaskell: "Cranford." 

Hughes: "Tom Brown at Rugby." 

Cooper: "Deerslayer." 

Poe: "Gold Bug." 

Hawthorne: "House of Seven Gables." 

II 

London: "Call of the Wild." 
Stevenson: "Prince Otto." 
Tennyson: "Princess." 
Irving: "Life of Goldsmith." 
Alcott: "Little Women." 
Scott: "Kenil worth." 

Ill 

Swift: "Gulliver's Travels." 
Bunyan: "Pilgrim's Progress." 
Dickens: "Old Curiosity Shop." 
Lytton: "Last Days of Pompeii." 
Thackeray: "Vanity Fair." 

IV 

Kinglsey: "Westward Ho." 

Thackeray: "Pendennis." 

Hughes: "Tom Brown at Oxford." 

Eliot: "Mill on the Floss." 

Shakespeare: "As You Like It." 

Readings from Bible: Genesis, Samuel, Ruth, Esther. 



COMPOSITION AND RHETORIC 

(Based upon Thomas, Howe and O'Hair Text.) 
Grammar. 

It is a mistake for the high school teacher to assume that the 
teaching of grammar is not his proper function. Even though the 
instruction in grammar in the graded schools has been particularly 
efficient, there is in the composition classes of the high school 
constant need for a review of grammatical principles, and there is 
likewise constant opportunity for further sj^stematic progress in 
the study. 

Review is necessary in order to avoid educational waste. The 
teacher in his use of technical terms must see that his instruction 
is being understood. 

There will be need, too, for further advance in grammatical 
knowledge. When the teacher feels, for instance, that the compo- 
sition work of his class can be strengthened by teaching the differ- 
ence between coordinating and subordinating connectives, he will 
pause in his work and throw emphasis upon that distinction. 
And he will not hesitate to do this even though he is put to the ex- 
ertion of teaching a distinction which the pupils in the graded 
schools may never have learned. 

Composition. 

The definite aim in composition teaching is to enable the pupil 
to speak and to write in strong, simple, clear, and correct English. 
Having secured from a majority of his pupils habitual strength, 
simplicity, clearness and correctness, the teacher may study the 
advisability of trying to arouse in a few of the more select and 
capable the additional element of charm. 

The work in composition is of two sorts — oral and written — 
each graded in such a way as to accord with the mental equipment 
of the pupil and at the same time inspire a healthy reach. Inas- 
much as the pupil's English is far more frequently employed in 
oral than in written expression, we find it profitable to em- 
phasize systematic work in oral composition. Now oral composi- 
tion, thus considered, is not applied to the short, fragmentary 
sentences that pupils use in play or among unconventional sur- 
roundings; it is applied to longer, more connected speech — inci- 
dents, reproductions of stories, character-sketches, explanations, 
topics in history and in science — any oral account, in short, that is 

(31) 



30 



32 Uniform Course of Study 

large enough in scope to demand attention to its form and struc 
tiire. In this di'ill, however, the emphasis is not merely upon Eng 
lish form and structure. Effective teaching here demands criticisn 
upon the projier pronunciation of words, clear enunciation of syl 
lables, posture, ability to stand before the class and look the mem 
hers in the eye — any of those characteristics, indeed, which aid ir 
the oral deliver}^ of thought. 

The sort of structure which drill in oral composition secure; 
— except, perhaps, in the advanced grades — can never be othci 
than sim])le. In the aim toward the more elaborate, the valuable 
disciplinary implement that directs toward accuracy is th( 
written composition. Here the form is neither fragile nor evanes- 
cent. The pupil's production is before him and before his teacher 
By each it ma}^ be critically examined. The teacher first points 
out the errors in spelling, in grammar, in simple rhetoric. Then 
as a means of securing broad ideas of structure, the pupil is taughl 
to ask himself three important questions. Of the whole composi- 
tion, of each paragraph, of each sentence, he asks: (1) Is it unified'; 
(2) Is it coherent? (3) Is the emphasis proper? 

Structure, however, is not the only thing a composition shoulc 
possess. It must first of all possess vitality. This quality can 
more readily be secured — especially in the earlier grades — bj^ 
assigning simple subjects from daily life, such as My Experience 
With a Dog, How I Should Like to Spend the Holidays. 

Perhaps most of the requirements of the teacher's task in oral 
and written composition will be met if the five following genera' 
suggestions are fully comprehended and carefully followed: 

General Sucjigestions 

1. Develop a sense for form and organization. 

2. Encourage a free and facile expression of the pupil's in- 
terest. Use this means to enlarge the pupil's vocabulary. 

3. Develop the pupil's power to observe closely. 

4. Allow the other studies in the curriculum to contribute t( 
the composition work. Encourage all the teachers of other sub- 
jects in the school, constantly, to demand good written and spoken 
English from their pupils. 

5. Criticise constructively and sympathetically — as much bj 
persoiud confcn'cuice as possible. 

As corollaries to these the following specific suggestions arc 
added : 



The Course in Detail 33 

Specific Suggestions 

1. Insist on the use of black ink. 

2. Insist on the use of uniform paper. 

3. Refuse to accept careless penmanship, or crumpled papers. 

4. Demand that the theme be ready on the day assigned. 

5. Correct and return the themes regularly. 

6. The pupil will take more interest if his work is graded; 
for example, A = excellent; B = good; C = fair; D = unsatisfactory. 

7. Teach the pupil to correct his theme carefully before hand- 
ing it in. Let him learn, as Professor Barrett Wendell has ex- 
pressed it, that paragraphs and whole compositions are matters 
for prevision, but that sentences are matters for revision. 

8. Faulty and careless themes should be rewritten. 

9. Corrected themes should be enclosed within the rewritten 
themes. 

10. For detailed suggestions on oral composition work, read 
the chapter on Oral Composition in Thomas, Howe and O'Hair's 
Rhetoric and Composition. 

11. Letters may be written in each year. It is a good plan to 
have them handed in on letter paper, in envelopes properly, ad- 
dressed. Insist on a good quality of stationery. Discourage fancy 
colors. Write on consecutive pages, as a book is printed. 

12. The teacher who helps the child to think clearly will be 
helping him to write and speak clearly. 

13. Make free use of the blackboard. To criticise before the 
class a theme previously written out on the board, will save many 
hours of correction. 

THE COURSE IN DETAIL 

First Year 
Composition. 

Short weekly themes. The primary aim is to encourage spon- 
taneity, but emphasis is strongly laid on mechanical items — neat- 
ness, indentation of paragraphs, spelling, grammatical forms, and 
the study of such simple rhetorical principles as The Whole Compo- 
sition, The Sentence, Words, and the simpler principles of Narra- 
tion, Description, and Letter Writing. In the oral composition 
work the pupil stands before the class, and when he has finished 
his theme receives the comment of his teachers and classmates 

3—5077 



34 Uniform Course of Study 

In addition to the observations of those principles which govern 
effective written discourse the speaker is expected to stand erectly, 
to enunciate distinctly, and to guard carefully against mistakes 
in the pronunciation of words. Chapters I, III, IV, VI, VIII, X, 
and XI of Thomas, Howe and OHair's Rhetoric and Composition are 
carefully studied. Attention is likewise directed to the main points 
in Chapters II, V, VII (Narration and Description), and IX. 

Second Year 
Composition. 

Weekly themes. Emphasis falls upon the study of the para- 
graph. The student learns that paragraphs may be developed by 
certain specific methods, — by details, by one specific example, by 
comparison, by contrast, by cause and effect, by proofs, by repeti- 
tion. The principles governing effective Narration and Descrip- 
tion are carefully studied and applied. There is constant insist- 
ence upon correct and effective sentence structure and upon care 
in the choice of words. In both the oral and the written composi- 
tion a higher efficiency is constantly expected. All the chapters 
of Thomas, Howe and O' Hair's Composition and Rhetoric studied in 
the first year are carefully reviewed. Particular stress falls upon 
Chapters II, IV, V, VI, VII (Narration and Description), and 
VIII and IX. 

Third Year 
Composition. 

The whole composition; review of the Sentence and the Para- 
graph; review of Narration and Description, with special atten- 
tion to Exposition. There is constant practice in Oral Composi- 
tion; debating is strongly encouraged. In this year's work special 
emphasis is placed upon the selection and organization of material 
for the longer theme. Palmer's Self -Cultivation in English is used 
as a model for this work. An attempt to write verse is an aid to 
the appreciation of poetry, and is freely encouraged. All the chap- 
ters of Thomas, Howe and O'Hair's Composition and Rhetoric 
previously studied are reviewed. Emphasis falls upon Chapter VII, 
particularly upon that portion which relates to Exposition. 

Suggestions for Home Reading. — William Morris: Sigurd the 
Volsung; Blackmore: Lorna Doone; Thackeray: Vanity Fair; 
Scott: Guy Mannering; Dickens: David Copperfield. 



Composition and Rhetoric 35 

Fourth Year 
Composition. 

A careful review of Narration, Description, and Exposition. 
Special attention to Argumentation. Continued emphasis upon 
Oral Composition. Review of all the chapters of Thomas, Howe 
and O'Hair's Composition and Rhetoric, with special emphasis upon 
Chapter VII, particularly by the portion which relates to Argu- 
mentation. 



HISTORY AXD CIYICS 
(One Unit Required. See page 14.) 



"W - one year is taken the work shall consist of Ameri- 

can Hij. . . „_.i Civics — 3rd or 4th Year." 

While the Course in history has been outlined for the first three 
years, it may be used for the sec<: : i and fourth years in 

schools omitting the study of history „ __ first year. 

Xo group of studies surpasses in impwrtance that of the social 
sciences. In the present organization of the scL -^. history 

^^ ' •": ~ " '•'lish the basis : ^ ^ '-^^ "^^portunity ;.. _- study of 
lation?hiT>?. 

To bring ihe lii erience in past ages to bear in 
a vi* -^ " upon the .-r-e_r. to give _:--^_ :' ■" " - -^ operat- 
ing jji society and secure intelligeii" i. therein,, 
to awaken civic consciousness responsibility, 
to cultivate the power of •■^'""- - — hiking, that 
is. in terms of causation, o: _ _ - rxercise of 
the critical faculty upon the sources oi information — these are 
among the results to be - ~ • '^ — '-^g history in high schools. 
While the aim is not s stery of de*:ail? as to dis- 
cover the larger trend of things, yet there st sufficient 
study ii~ ■ ' -"ery of f: - * r"'~ = - "^isis i' : -'j^nd conclu- 
sions s.:- Terpreta. - ements. 

Conscious connection sh y established between 

past rimes - - - - ~ — - .-. In this way. the facts 

of history a; present is ill'imined. Pos- 

sible connections are without number for the alert - rvant 

teacher. F " -^ ; ■-"--; - - : P "- :r 

may be fr . ^ 

day. The Roman system of land surveys sheds important light 

- ; - - : : Th r - ^ "-rson. 

- - _ - - :imes 

and countries, between hving statesme: - past ages, 

are. if not -' " _ - -- - -" ■ ' "- 

ing. The , - - - - -'^ 

C36) 



History AND Civics 37 

than a casual one and should be drawn by the pupil with some de- 
gree of fulness and clearness of detail. ■';'.. 

Pupils should be encouraged to express freely their opinions 
upon the actions of men in the past. In this way valuable training 
for civic affairs is obtained and much of the drudgery inevitable in 
the masteiy of facts is relieved. Full and free discussion of the 
merits of leaders and public policies, of the comparative benefits 
of opposing lines of action, may with profit be provoked. Was 
Jackson justified in his suspicion of the Bank? Did the benefits 
of Napoleon's constructive statesmanship outweigh possible evils 
of his military career? Was Jefferson's policy of avoiding war at 
any cost an expedient one? Care should be taken that all sides of 
a question are brought into the light. Hasty and ill-formed judg- 
ments should be carefully guarded against. 

Interest in the romance and the pageantry of histor}^ may 
well be fostered in adolescent minds. The dramatic episodes, the 
great crises in human affairs, the wonderfully thrilling moments 
in the career of some great leader, should be utilized to the utmost 
in stimulating interest and nourishing the imagination. 

Topical analysis should form the basis of instruction. This 
differs greatly from the so-called ''reciting by topics." The latter 
ma}' and often does degenerate into mere reciting of paragraphs 
in a textbook. Topical analysis means the logical and systematic 
grouping of facts about a central topic. This brings into clear 
perspective the causal and logical aspects of a subject. Even purely 
narrative and chronological subjects should be reduced to the 
topical form. Thus, the facts of a military campaign may be so 
arranged. Stories, anecdotes, narratives may be introduced into 
the topical study by way of illustrating or re-enforcing a point. A 
series of lessons may be so planned as to bring out the salient facts 
of a large topic, an historical movement or an institution. When 
such a subject has been completed by the class, each student should 
gather up, in a carefully written topical outline, the elements of 
the subject. Such a summary outline constitutes a valuable syn- 
thesis and serves to "clinch" the subject. 

Of all subjects history demands extensive reading. The amount 
and character of collateral reading should be carefully graded to 
the ability and advancement of the class. Beginners in history 
classes should be cited to specific portions, of limited extent, and 
should be early instructed in the mechanics of books, using the 
textbook for practice, — in the purpose and use of footnotes, mar- 
ginal I'eferences, index and pronouncing vocabulary, title-page. 



38 Uniform Course of Study 

and the like. Evaluation of authors should constantly be in- 
culcated. Digests and excerpts from the reading may be entered 
in notebooks and referred to in the discussions in class. 

Some provision should be made, in the course of instruction, for 
written reports or theses. The thesis is a valuable device for secur- 
ing accuracy of statement and fact. Citation by author, title, and 
page should be insisted upon, and instruction given in compiling 
bibliography and in taking notes in preparation for the thesis. The 
subjects should be chosen directly from the field of work and 
should involve a question or problem to be answered. A few writ- 
ten theses (two or three per term) rather than too frequent, are 
desirable, and these may be fairly extended in treatment. This 
work may be readily correlated with theme work in English. 

Constant effort is needed to give a sense of reality to the history 
of past times. For younger students, vizualizing the facts of his- 
tory is helpful. Maps for physical setting, political relations, and 
economic or industrial conditions, are visualized forms of historical 
data. Pictures are even more graphic representations of restricted 
phenomena. These may be obtained in inexpenseive form from old 
magazines and mounted on cardboard. Cheap prints may be 
obtained from the dealers. Pictures in the textbooks should be 
utilized to the full. Source selections, if properly chosen, often lend 
a sense of reality and give vivid portrayal of conditions. Letters, 
memoirs, diaries and journals are usually rich in interesting ma- 
terials. For historical atmosphere and color, the best historical 
novels may be commended. Under the magic wand of the artist 
writer, type characters and real leaders take on life and action 
and are endowed with emotion and actuated by motives. 

The following books for the teacher may be recommended: Com- 
mittee of Seven, "Study of History in Schools;" Bourne, "Teach- 
ing of History and Civics;" Hartwell, "Teaching of History;" 
New England Association Committee, "A History Syllabus for 
Secondary Schools" and "Historical Sources for Schools;" Com- 
mittee of Five, "Study of History in Schools." 

THE COURSE IN DETAIL 

First Year 
(Webster's Ancient History.) 
Pedagogical Apparatus. 

The teacher will in the first place undertake a careful examina- 
tion of the "Suggestions for Further Study" (Webster's Ancient 



History and Civics 39 

History, pp. 20 to 28), where detailed references are made to the 
most useful aids to historical instruction, such as encyclopedias, 
atlases, wall maps, illustrations, works of travel and historical 
fiction, source collections, and modern books. 

The "References" preceding each chapter of the text are in- 
tended to supply adequate material for the pupil's collateral read- 
ing. Emphasis should naturally be placed on the study of the 
sources, when these can be presented in an interesting and intelli- 
gible fashion. The use of Webster's Readings in Ancient History, 
or of the excellent collections of extracts by Botsford and Davis, 
will go far toward remedying the lack of library facilities. 

The collateral reading will usually furnish suflficient material 
for the preparation of brief essays or written reports. No better 
means exists of correlating the training in history and English. 
In such work it is highly desirable that the pupil be required to 
state exactly (by author, title, volume, and page) where he ob- 
tained his information. Not all reports need be written out. Some 
salient incident, some happy anecdote, some piece of vivid de- 
scription can be assigned to students for oral presentation in the 
classroom, in this wa}^ providing effective training in extemporan- 
eous discourse. 

The "Studies" are most conveniently used for review purposes 
upon the completion of each chapter of the text. It will be ob- 
served that nearly all of these take the form of suggestive questions 
and should arouse stimulating discussions in the classroom. The 
alert teacher will be able to add more material of the same sort — 
questions which do not test the memory only, but also stir the 
sluggish mind, provoke debate, and lead to constructive thinking. 
The other "studies" include: (1) exercises requiring the use of 
outline maps and of maps in the text; (2) selections of important 
dates to be memorized; (3) lists of technical terms and of English 
words and expressions derived from the classical languages; and 
(4) questions based upon particular illustrations in the textbook. 

The use of permanent notebooks with detachable leaves will 
greatly facilitate the work of historical instruction. In such note- 
books pupils should be expected to insert abstracts of their col- 
lateral reading; short but significant passages copied from other 
books; any essays or written reports they may compose; lists of 
dates, technical terms, prominent personalities, and important 
places; digests or outlines of particular chapters of the textbook; 
and finally, all maps which may be prepared from time to time. 
Notebook keeping is usually enjoyedby^students; indeed, the 



40 Uniform Course of Study 

chief danger is that they may come to regard their notebooks as 
fetishes and devote to them time and energy which would l)etter 
be spent in supplementary reading. 

Considerations for the Teacher. 

The elaborate topical analysis of the book — 19 chapters, each a 
topic in itself, 235 sections, each a topical subdivision, and box 
notes for every paragraph — should facilitate the mastery of the 
text and its subsequent review. It should be noted that the Table 
of Contents includes the title of every numbered section and thus 
provides a helpful outline of the entire work. 

Maps and illustrations form an integral part of the text for 
purposes of study and recitation. These are constantly referred 
to in the footnotes, in the "Studies," and in the Index and Pro- 
nouncing Vocabulary. Notice, particularly, that the illustrations 
are closely correlated with the reading matter and that they are 
intended not to ornament it but supplement it. The descriptive 
caption immediately under each illustration, setting forth its 
special significance, should be carefully read by students. 

The Table of Events and Dates furnishes a chronological con- 
spectus of the entire field. The specially important dates chosen 
for memorization are here italicized. This table should be also 
useful in bringing out clearly contemporaneous events in Oriental 
countries and in Greece and Rome. 

The very full Index and Pronouncing Vocabulary indicates the 
pronunciation of all difficult proper names, according to the system 
of diacritical marks found in the latest edition of Webster's New 
International Dictionary. It is desirable that pupils be carefully 
trained on these signs and sounds, for good work done here will 
encourage that habit of consulting a dictionary in connection with 
any reading, historical, scientific, or literary. 

Footnotes are to be read, not skipped; and all cross-references 
to other pages of the text and to maps and illustrations should be 
looked up with scrupulous care by the pupil. 

Outline. 

The first, nine chapters, devoted to prehistoric times, the Orien- 
tal countries, and to Greece, include about half of the book and 
may well constitute the first semester's work. Chapters X-XVII, 
dealing with Rome, will naturally form the basis for the work of 
the second semester, while tli(> two rcnnaimng chapters on the pri- 



History and Civics 41 

vate life and art of the classical peoples furnish a means of con 
eluding the course with a survey of those features of ancient civili- 
zation shared in common by Greeks and Romans. Some teachers 
may prefer to take up Greek private antiquities and art at the 
close of the political history of Greece (ending with Chap. IX). 
Similarly, the study of the sections of Italian geography in Chapter 
IV may be postponed, by those who prefer the traditional order, 
until Chapter X is reached. The arrangement in the text has, 
however, the very great advantage of emphasizing the real unity 
of classical civilization. It is a serious mistake to treat Greek 
history and Roman history as separate entities, instead of regard- 
ing them as related and interdependent aspects of one historical 
evolution localized in the Mediterranean basin. 

The first chapter on "The Ages before History" contains a 
somewhat extended presentation of prehistoric and primitive cul- 
ture, as providing an indispensable basis for all historical studies. 

The Oriental period, instead of being broken up into a large 
number of chapters without inner connection, should be regarded 
as a unit, and its history, both political and cultural, should be 
outlined in such a way as to make an impression of unity on the 
student's mind. 

The period from 395 A. D. to 814 A. D., covering the Germanic 
invasions and the formation of Germanic kingdoms, should be dis- 
cussed briefly and should be presented as the tapering-off of an- 
cient history. Emphasis ought to be placed, therefore, on those 
features of Graeco-Roman civilizations which survived the shock 
of the barbarian inroads and became the basis of the civilization of 
the Middle Ages. Topics such as Mohammedanism, the Papacy, 
and Monasticism, while they fall chronologically within this period, 
are essentially a part of medieval history, and their study may be 
properly postoned till the second year of the course. 

Second Year 
Medieval and Modern History. 

(Text: New Medieval and Modern History — Harding.) 
A study of the factors in the making of the Europe of today. 
A preliminary study of the geographical basis, giving the sa- 
lient physical facts which have shaped European history; of the 
factors with which the Middle Ages started, especially the decay- 
ing Roman civilization, the Teutonic nations, and the rising Chris- 
tian church; of the restored empire under Charlemagne. 



42 Uniform Course of Study 

The earlier portion of the year should be devoted to (1) the 
characteristic medieval institutions, such as the Church, feudalism, 
empire and papacy (and the conflict between the two); (2) the 
great continental movements, such as the Norse invasions, the 
Crusades, and the rise of nation states; (3) the life and culture of 
the Middle Ages, — of the peasants, the nobles, and the townsmen, 
and of the Universities; (4) the rise of England and France, and 
the Hundred Years' War. 

The period of the Renaissance and Reformation is an epoch 
of tradition and (together with the resulting wars of religion) 
should be treated as a unit. Only the salient features should be 
dwelt upon, and these should be made as concrete as possible by 
means of pictures, stories, documents, and so on. Care must be 
exercised in touching upon the religious controversies of the Ref- 
ormation period, yet something of the great divisions which arose 
should be brought out. Great tact and restraint must be exer- 
cised to avoid needlessly offending religious susceptibilities. 

The last half year should be given to the period since 1648. 
Prior to the French Revolution, the important topics are the Age 
of Louis XIV, the struggle for constitutional liberty in England, 
the rise of Prussia, and the colonial rivalry of France and England. 
The characteristics of the Old Regime should form a setting for 
the study of the French Revolution. The latter should be seen 
as a great and successful social upheaval, and should not be limited 
to the Reign of Terror. Napoleon's career should be viewed in 
relation to the French Revolution. The growth of national unity 
and the spread of democracy are the characteristic movements of 
the nineteenth century. Much emphasis should be placed upon 
the social, industrial, and economic changes of recent times. 

Third Year 

United States History and Civics. 

Since only one year is given to both the subjects of American 
History and Civics, it is recommended that the former be given a 
place on the program three days of each week and the latter two 
days of each week, throughout the entire year. With this plan it 
will not be possible to cover all the subject matter included in these 
texts, and it is suggested that all the chapters of the books be cov- 
ered, but in each only a few topics selected for full treatment. 

In the outline the important topics of each chapter are men- 
tioned and particular attention is called to th6se features that de- 



United States History 43 

serve especial emphasis. In the study of these subjects do not 
permit mere memorization of the text, but work for an under- 
standing of it. 

Emphasize the reasons for events and legislation. Allow full 
discussion and expression of opinion. Use maps constantly in the 
history work; do not discuss an event until its location has been 
determined. Wherever possible, connect all topics with present 
day conditions and occurrences. 

COURSE IN DETAIL (UNITED STATES HISTORY) 

First Year 

(Text: American History — James and Sanford.) 

First Term 

Chapters I-XVI 
Three Recitations per week 

The Discovery of America. (Chapter I.) 

Show how ancient ideas of the earth developed through many 
centuries. Conditions leading to the discovery of America are 
important at this point, review European history previously 
studied. How the name America came to be given, first to South 
America. Explain the maps on page 13. 

Spanish Exploration and Colonization. (Chapter II.) 

If the details of Spanish explorations have been covered fully 
in the grades, the facts may be summarized here. Use maps to lo- 
cate the journeys. Pay more attention to motives and results. 
Why Spanish conquest was easy in Mexico, but difficult farther 
north. Industries and government of the Spanish colonies. Re- 
lations with the Indians. Show the relations between these facts 
and present conditions in Spanish-American countries. The policy 
of Spain towards her colonies. How many American colonies does 
Spain now have? 

The Rivalry of Nations in the Sixteenth Century. (Chapter III.) 

A skeleton outline of English and French history between 1500 
and 1600, in parallel columns, may be used for review of the Euro- 
pean background. American events may be outlined in a third 
column, with names and events placed in their proper relative po- 
sitions according to dates. Show why the English were not active 



44 Uniform Course of Study 

ill iiiaritinic enterprise and colonization at first; why a new era be- 
gan later; how European events determined the periods of French 
activity; why the early attempts at English colonization failed. 

Virginia and Maryland. (Chapter IV.) 

Teach the fact that the London and Plymouth companies were 
a part of a great movement for commercial expansion. Show how 
colonization was related to this. Explain the money-making 
scheme of the London Company and how it underwent changes. 
The relation of the compan}" to James I, and the beginning of 
representative government. The labor problem in Virginia. The 
conditions that determined the founding of Maryland. 

New England. (Chapter V.) 

Place in a column the list of monarchs and great events in 
English history between 1603 and 1660. Enter in a parallel 
column, at places corresponding to their dates, the events in Amer- 
ican history prescribed in this chapter. Thus the very close de- 
pendence of the latter upon the course of English history may be 
made more clear. Discuss the likeness of Puritans and Separatists 
in England, and also the differences between them; show how con- 
ditions in America made them alike. Show how local and colonial 
governments in New England developed from necessity and from 
charter provisions. Emphasize the great ideas embodied in these 
events; religious freedom, local self-government, toleration. 

Further English Colonization. (Chapter VL) 

Here, again, much of our colonial history is shown to be the 
outgrowth of European conditions. Use a map of the world. Why 
were the land system and the form of government in New Nether- 
land unsatisfactory? Extend the outline of English history from 
1660 to 1689, and fill in the events of American history. These 
outlines are not to be merely memorized, but are to be used as aids 
in the understanding of causal relations. Emphasize the conquest 
of New Netherland; motives for the founding of the Carolinas; the 
non-English immigrant; social and economic conditions in the 
Carolinas; Penn's motives and his plans for government. 

The Colonies After the Restoration, 1660, 1690. (Chapter VIL) 

Treat the navigation laws from the standpoint of English in- 
dustries and interests. Emphasize the revolt in Virginia against 



United States History 45 

bad economic and political conditions (Bacon's rebellion, 1676). 
Show how and why the English government tried to control the 
colonies and why the control was imperfect. Refer constantly to 
the schedule of events in European history. Emphasize resistance 
toarbitrary government in New England and New York, also the 
section upon colonial life, especially the influence of physical 
geography upon industries. Use references here. What the colo- 
nists and the Indians learned from each other. Why disputes over 
land were common. The two great tendencies. 

The French in America. (Chapter VIII.) 

One or more pupils may make an intensive study of a French 
explorer: Champlain, Marquette and Joliet, or La Salle. Em- 
phasize French methods of colonization. The names of the wars 
may be entered in a schedule one just l^efore and one just after 
1700; one preceding and one following 1750. Emphasize causes 
and results, rather than battles. Note that territory was ceded at 
the close of two wars only; map the changes. Topics worthy of 
expansion are: the expedition to Louisburg, Braddock's expedi- 
tion, siege of Quebec. Topic 13, page 126, deserves full discus- 
sion. 

For the topic Westward Migration constant reference to the 
map is essential. The Albany Congress is important. 

The English Colonies in the Eighteenth Century. (Chapter IX.) 

Give much attention to the non-English colonists; also to in- 
dustries, especially commerce. Changes in religion and education. 
The conflict between popular government and the policy of control, 
as represented by the assemblies and governors respectively. 
What did this conflict foreshadow? 

Cause of the American Revolution. (Chapter X.) 

In discussing the mercantile system show how colonial indus- 
tries were in some cases benefited, in others injured, and in still 
others let alone. The various acts of the English government were 
attempts to carry out a "New Policy" of control, especially the 
enforcement of the navigation acts by various devices; also the 
establishment of a central military authority. A study of George 
III and his influence will help to explain the situation. In re- 
sponse to each obnoxious act of the English government are found 
two results in the colonies: (1) resistance, (2) a tendency toward 



46 Uniform Course of Study 

union. Make a list of the steps leading to union. Show how the 
movement for independence was slow in arising, and was not unani- 
mously supported. The Tories deserve attention. In the sum- 
mary of causes (pp. 159-160) find specific illustrations under each 
head. Consult histories of England written by Englishmen to 
find their method of treating the causes of the Revolution. 

The Revolutionary War. (Chapter XI.) 

More profit may be derived from a thorough study of one or 
two campaigns, with references, than a slight treatment of all. 
Use maps constantly. Find reasons for the movements of armies, 
and the results of campaigns. Make the financial side of the war 
prominent. The Articles of Confederation were another step to- 
wards a strong union. The treaty with France, and that at the 
end of the war are important. The expedition of George Rogers 
Clark and accompanying events should be emphasized. Answer 
question 23, page 181. 

The Period of the Confederation. (Chapter XII.) 

The reading of certain clauses of the Articles of Confederation 
(see James and Sanford's Government in State and Nation, Ap- 
pendix B) will make more concrete the discussion of its defects. 
The western claims and cessions are important. What state or 
states claimed the ground where your schoolhouse stands? Study 
the plan of land survey in Indiana. Why was the Ordinance of 
1787 important? Did it really exclude slavery from Indiana? 
Correlate with this chapter the history of early American settle- 
ment in Indiana. 

Commercial treaties are important because they make definite 
and certain the conditions under which merchants and shippers 
can carry on their foreign business. Note the close commercial 
relations between England and the United States and the English 
policy of hampering our shipping. The trade on the Mississippi 
was very important to the Westerners. Make a list of the condi- 
tions that demanded the formation of a new government. How 
many of them are ))ased upon industrial conditions? 

The Formation of the Federal Constitution. (Chapter XIII.) 

Try to form a vivid picture of the convention at Philadelphia 
and its leading members. See in the Virginia and New Jersey 
plans, new and old ideas respectively of a central government. The 
former triumphed in all essentials; under the first compromise 



United States History 47 

the government was to be really national. In connection with the 
third compromise, discuss reasons why merchants and shippers 
should desire control of commerce by Congress. Note howTthis 
subject and slave importation were balanced against each other, 
so that each might be carried. In this discussion turn constantly 
to Annendix II and read clauses of the Constitution. Ratification 
of the Constitution was as important as framing. Trace the exact 
process employed and list the arguments for and against it. The 
life of the people (pp. 207-215) is as important as their govern- 
ment; do not make this history too strongly political. 

The Organization of the New Government. (Chapter XIV.) 

In studying the departments of our government and the early 
laws, find the clauses of the Constitution that are their authoriza- 
tion. Also, refer to our present departments and laws. In order 
to understand the United States Bank, make a study of the func- 
tions of a bank today; i. e., deposit, exchange, loaning, and issue. 
Make a list of rights secured by the first ten amendments. Notice 
that all persons beheve that Congress has implied powers; the 
controversy arises over the extent to which we should go in imply- 
ing its authority. Note also that we can imply only upon the basis 
of powers stated in the Constitution. 

Foreign Relations, 1783-1801. (Chapter XV.) 

Review the important facts of French history in this period. 
Emphasize the importance of Washington's neutral policy. Make 
a list of the questions in dispute between England and the United 
States, including those mentioned in Chapter XII. Place oppo- 
site each the disposition made of it by Jay's treaty. Show the 
importance of the treaty with Spain, reviewing page 192. Corre- 
late the Indian troubles with Indiana history. 

Note how we came near to actual war with France and how we 
escaped that necessity. The Alien and Sedition laws reveal the 
bitter political hatred of that time. The Virginia and Kentucky 
resolutions show this also and revive certain ideas of a central gov- 
ernment. The election of Jefferson should be studied in connec- 
tion with Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, of the Constitution and 
the Twelfth Amendment. Show how the invention of machinery 
in England was related to the cotton gin; neither could have full 
effect without the other. 



48 Uniform Course of Study 

Democracy and Expansion. 1801-1811. (Chapter XVI.) 

The character and influence of Jefferson and Marshall should 
be emphasized. In tracing the history of the Louisiana Purchase, 
review the Mississippi question (pp. 192, 229). Correlate with 
European history. Read under Question 6, page 258. 

In order to understand the l)lockade policies of England and 
France, one must realize the great increase of exports from the 
United States, and specially the almost complete monopoly of the 
carrying trade by American vessels, in spite of English and French 
attacks. Show why the embargo policy was not successful. Then 
came various attempts to settle the matter by diplomacy. 

The battle of Tippecanoe is a central event in Indiana history. 

Second Term. 

Chapters XVII-XXXI 

(Three Recitations per week) 

The Second War for Independence. (Chapter XVII.) 

Show the connection betwee the war policy (in place of the 
diplomacy policy) and the rise of Henry Clay and other leaders; 
also the influence of Western ideas. Why was not war declared 
against France? The war in the Northwest deserves careful 
study; use maps. Locate the various naval battles on a map of 
the world. (See Sanford's American History Maps, No. 16, A. J. 
Nystrom & Company, Chicago.) Compare vessels and naval meth- 
ods of that time and the present. Compare the causes of the war 
with the results reached by it and with the terms of the treaty. 
New England opposition should be discussed. 

Reorganization, Westward Migration, and Internal Improvements. 
(Chapter XVIII.) 
Develop fully the conditions that account for the protective 
tariff of 1816. Show whom it injured (commercial and shipping 
interests) as well as whom it benefited. The westward movement 
deserves the most attention that can be given to it. Review this 
topic on pp. 170-172, 190-191, 208 (map), 229-230. Study routes, 
motives, land policy, internal improvements, character of western 
life. Use maps, pp. 278, 279. Show how the Missouri question 
was an outgrowth of western migration. Review the history of 
slavery, (1) in colonial times, (2) during and after the Revolu- 
tion, (3) the admission of states. Notice that there were two Mis- 
souri compromises. 



United States History 49 

The Development of Nationalism, 1815-1830. (Chapter XIX.) 

Evidence of nationalism and the disappearance of the Federal- 
ist party should be explained. Have outUne maps made showing 
the new acquisitions and their boundaries. Treat the European 
background of the Monroe doctrine; the two main points of the 
doctrine. Discuss the way in which the doctrine is regarded today. 
Make the personalities of John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jack- 
son stand out prominently. Connect the various tariff topics (pp. 
271, 289, 293, etc.). Note the changes of opinion upon the ques- 
tion of protection. Account for the changes seen in the election 
maps on page 295. 

The New Democracy and the Increase of Sectional Feeling. (Chap- 
ter XX.) 

Associate the facts on pages 280 and 297 with the life, charac- 
ter, and influence of Andrew Jackson. Make a comparison be- 
tween him and John Quincy Adams. Discuss reasons for location 
and effects of canals and railroads shown on the map between pages 
296 and 297. Show the effect of the inventions mentioned. Cor- 
relate the educational and literary movements with topics treated 
in other classes. Show the importance of the humanitarian move- 
ment. 

Outline the events connected with nulhfication history (pages 
306-308). Review the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (pages 
235-236) and the Hartford Convention (page 268). 

Review the United States Banks (pages 220, 272). Make a 
hst of the reasons why Jackson opposed the bank; how many were 
good reasons? (Section 9, page 325.) Make a list of the events 
and conditions that combined to bring about the crisis of 1837; 
show relations among the various items. The independent treas- 
ury system (finally estabUshed in 1846, see page 328) has lasted 
until the present time (1914) and is being superseded by the new 
currency system enacted in December, 1913. 

Review the various slavery topics previously studied. Why 
were abolitionists few in numbers? Explain the importance of 
the dispute over the "gag rule." Note that the Whig party (see 
pages 31, 318) was composed of both northerners and southerners, 
both loose and strict constructionsts. This helps to explain Tyler's 
attitude and also some subsequent events, such as Clay's attitude 
in 1844, page 323. 

Outline the history of Texas from 1819 to 1845. 

4—5077 



50 Uniform Course of Study 

Territorial Expansion and Growth of the Slavery Issue. (Chapter 
XXI.) 

Make a map that will illustrate the various features of Oregon 
history (see page 326). 

Trace Polk's policy leading to the Mexican War; was It justi- 
fied? What was the opinion of leading statesmen? (Question 4, 
page 344.) Answer Question 5, page 344. Summarize the leading 
campaigns of the Mexican War. Compare these with the situa- 
tion existing in 1914. 

The Wilmot proviso is important as leading to the free soil 
party, and further slavery discussion. The election of 1848 illus- 
trates again the peculiar composition of the Whig and 
Democratic parties. 

The Clayton-Bulwer treaty is of interest in connection with 
Panama Canal history. 

Have pupils see clearly the attitude taken by each of the lead- 
ing statesmen upon the Compromise of 1850. Which were extreme 
and which were moderate in their views? Study carefully the 
provisions of the fugitive slave and personal liberty laws. Did 
any routes of the underground railroad run near your home? 
Emphasize industrial conditions in the South. How was the North 
different? 

Slavery Extension and Sectional Feeling. (Chapter XXII.) 

Connect the Kansas-Nebraska question with westward migra- 
tion; cotton and slavery demanded more territory because the 
wasteful system of cultivation wore out the land. Douglas thought 
he had a solution for the question of slavery in territories and new 
states; why was it not a good solution from the standpoint of 
many northerners? From that of most southerners? Begin an 
outline of events in Kansas (pages 348-350) that will be completed 
later (pages 360-361). 

The Gadsden purchase gives occasion for a review of territorial 
acquisition (see map, page 349). The origin of the Repubhcan 
party is important. 

Do not neglect the industrial and social topics (pages 353-359), 
as these reflect the every-day life of the people more than do 
slavery controversies. The Dred-Scott decision gives opportunity 
to review the three prominent views concerning slavery in the 
territories. Show the importance of the Lincoln-Douglas debates. 
Most important is the split of the Democratic party over the ques- 



United States History 51 

tion of slavery in the territories. Explain the election map, page 
364, and the statistics on page 366. 

Secession and Civil War. (Chapter XXIII.) 

Discuss fully the reasons why South Carolina and other states 
seceded. With some classes, time ma}^ be profitably spent upon a 
study of the documents mentioned on page 370, rather than upon 
the campaigns of the Civil War. Make a chronological list of 
events between November, 1860, and July, 1861. The comparison 
between North and South is important; emphasize the importance 
of physical geography. 

If intensive study of a campaign is feasible, select either Grant's 
campaign in the West (1862) or McClellan's. The finances of the 
war are very important. Note that the Emancipation Proclama- 
tion did not at once (January 1, 1863) free any slaves, but that 
it had other important effects. Select either Vicksburg or Gettys- 
burg for intensive study. 

The Civil War {Continued), 1863-1865. (Chapter XXIV.) 

Four political topics of great importance : methods of raising 
troops, National Banking system, European recognition, election 
of 1864. 

Make a list of the various attempts that were made by the 
Northern army to advance to Richmond (1861-1864). Place with 
each item the names of important battles and commanding gen- 
erals. Study carefully pages 411-413. 

Reconstruction, 1863-1872. (Chapter XXV.) 

Do not allow prejudice against the South to control students' 
minds; rather let the atmosphere of the class be favorable to sym- 
pathetic appreciation of both sides of the problems that gave rise to 
the Civil War and the reconstruction problems. Note that John- 
son's plan of reconstruction followed that of Lincoln quite exactly. 
Debate the question of negro suffrage. Was the House of Repre- 
sentatives right on the impeachment question? Make a list of the 
steps taken by President Johnson and the southern states and peo- 
ple in a column; in a parallel column place a list of the acts of 
Congress; thus show how each side to the controversy tried to 
check the other at various points. 



52 Uniform Course of Study 

Diplomacy, Finance and Politics, 1865-1877. (Chapter XXVI.) 

The Mexican incident is of especial interest in connection with 
the recent trouble in Mexico. The treaty of Washington should 
be emphasized as leading to a very important case of arbitration. 
In the period since the Civil War industrial history is especially 
important; here are seen the beginnings of many movements that 
account for present industrial conditions. Constantly connect 
past and present in these topics. Under United States notes, re- 
view page 338. Review previous commercial crises (1819, 1837, 
1857); were there any causes in common? How can these crises 
be avoided? Show how the disputed election of 1876 was the out- 
come of the reconstruction policy. 

Industrial and Social Changes, 1866-1876. (Chapter XXVII.) 

Have the Bessemer and open-hearth methods and the making 
of coke looked up. Discuss corporations, how and why formed, 
illustrations, benefits, evils. Have pupils mention instances of con- 
centration in industry. Make an illustration of stock-watering, 
with figures. Get information concerning a labor union from one 
of its members or an officer. 

The silver question has ceased to be a problem in this country. 
As it is quite difficult, it may be omitted, so that more time can be 
given to other topics that involve important problems as yet un- 
settled. At the bottom, the demand for free silver, like the green- 
back movement, represented a demand for more money, and hence 
high prices, at a time when prices were declining. 

Political Changes and Industrial Expansion, 1880-1890. Chapter 
XXVIII.) 

The history of civil service reform deserves attention; review 
pages 242, 305-306. The greatest evil of the spoils system lies not 
in the inefficiency of the officers, but in the low type of politicians 
and the bad political practices that frequently accompany it. 

The distinction between interstate and intrastate commerce is 
important. Review the war tariff; see arguments for protection 
arising. Our relations with South and Central American countries 
are important in connection with recent events. 

Discuss again the concentration of industry, with illustrations 
of trusts and methods used to suppress competition. Examples of 
anti-trust suits. 



Civics 53 

Industrial and Political Problems, 1890-1897. (Chapter XXIX.) 
As with previous controverted questions, bring out both sides 
of the situation that gave rise to the Populist party. Mention ways 
in which national and state laws of recent years tend to carry out 
the ideas of the Populists. Note that the policy of Congress on 
the silver question, before 1893, was one of compromise; both Re- 
publicans and Democrats were divided within their own ranks over 
this question. Compare this situation with the way in which the 
Whig and Democratic parties treated the slavery issue. Inter- 
national arbitration is a topic of growing importance. Show how 
the various inventions have affected the lives of the students. 
Note that the Democratic party was divided within its own ranks 
on the question of protection; this accounts for the tariff law of 
1894. 

The Spanish-American War, 1898. (Chapter XXX.) 

Summarize the causes of the war with Spain. Explain the 

statement of Wilson (Division and Reunion) that the sensational 

character of events before the war began stand in contrast to the 

generosity that characterized its close. 

Debate the question of Philippine annexation; the question of 

Philippine independence. 

The Opening of a New Era. (Chapter XXXI.) 

At the beginning of this chapter are found facts concerning 
the new economic condition that banished the free silver ques- 
tion. The relations of this country to foreign nations are im- 
portant. In connection with the "new Monroe Doctrine" com- 
ment upon recent events in our Mexican relations. The history 
of the Panama Canal (see also pages 335-336) deserves extended 
treatment. In what ways has its construction set an example of 
good government? Mention recent labor disturbances in compari- 
son with those mentioned here. Make a list of reforms that have 
come about, and others that are being advocated. What more re- 
cent legislation has superseded the emergency currency law? 

CIVICS 

Third Year 

(Text: Government in the United States — Garner.) 

The work in Civics should be of such character as to stimulate 

an interest in the development of our system of government and a 

desire to contribute to its efficiency. 



54 Uniform Course of Study 

This can best be accomplished by a study of the various forms 
of local government as suggested in the text adopted. 

It should be the constant endeavor of the teacher to present 
the facts in the development of our body of laws and regulations as 
the outgrowth of certain political and civic needs as developed in 
the history of our nation and state. 

The real aim in Civics is to give such a basis for our civil gov- 
ernment that the pupils may become contributing members of so- 
ciety in the locality, where they are to live. 

The suggestive questions for research should receive emphasis 
and application should be made to such forms of government as 
most commonly prevail in the vicinity of the school. 

Visits should be made to such branches of the government as 
are nearest, and questions of local interest should be discussed by 
the pupils with parents, friends, and local authorities. 

The various officers of the school and civil corporations are 
usually willing to visit the civics classes and discuss the duties and 
responsibilities of their offices. 

Representative citizens of various occupations can be relied 
upon to discuss such legal and civil aspects of their occupations 
as are of interest to the community. 

The elections should be observed and studied as a means of an 
intelligent understanding of the exercise of franchise and the duties 
of citizens in respect to the election of various officials. In such 
study and work extreme care must be exercised that no partisan 
element enters into the study or discussion. 

The Legislature should be carefully observed and, if possible, 
visited during its sessions, and acts of general importance followed 
in the various steps by which they become laws. 

The various agencies of township, town, city and state should 
be studied in relation to the local government and welfare. 

The departments of the State Government which have charge 
of the protection of life and property should be studied and applica- 
tion made for material and bulletins giving reports of their work. 

Special topics for investigation can be carried on by individual 
pupils and reports made to the class. 

Discussion and debate of important questions is suggested as a 
means of increasing the interest and encouraging more careful 
study. 

If vitalized and localized this study becomes one of the greatest 
interest and should be made one of the most important items in the 
course of study. 



Civics 55 

The supplement in the text on Civics, treating of Government 
in Indiana should be studied in connection with the entire work in 
Civics, and reviewed again at the close of the year. 

Where applicable, reference has been made to this chapter m 
the general outline in Civics. The research questions at the close 
of each chapter are suggestive and practical and should be taken 
up in connection with each chapter, especially those questions per- 
taining to the State of Indiana and present day affairs. 

These questions are especially valuable because they call for 
original opinions and can form a basis for discussion in the class, 
from opposing views that may be advanced by the pupils. 

The present officials who are at the head of affairs in the state 
and nation should be named, also those who are of local interest. 
(See research questions.) 

December 11, 1916 is the one hundredth anniversary of the 
Statehood of Indiana, and some special topics on the development 
of government in Indiana have been added at the close of the out- 
line in Civics, for each term. 

First Term 

Chapters I-X 

(Two Recitations per week) 

Local Government : Towns, Townships, and Counties. (Chap- 
ter I.) (Study, in this connection. Chapter II, pages 9-24, Govern- 
ment in Indiana — see supplement in text.) 

County Government. The County-Township System. Merits 
of Local Self-Government. 

Local Government Continued: Cities and Villages. (Chapter 
II.) (Study, in this connection. Chapter III, pages 25-39. Gov- 
ernment in Indiana — see supplement in text.) 

Need of Municipal Government. 

City Growth, (Causes and Results) Movement to check immi- 
gration to cities. Position of the city in the state. 

The City Charter. The City Council and Powers. The Execu- 
tive and Administrative bodies of the city. City Finances: 
Sources, Expenditures, Debts. Agents for protection of Life and 
Property. Municipal Public Utilities — Ownership, Municipal 
Courts. 

The State Governments. (Chapter III.) (Study in this con- 



56 Uniform Course of Study 

nection the Constitution of Indiana, page 74, Preamble, Articles 
I, II, and III.) 

Place of the states in our Federal System. Powers, Rights and 
Privileges; Obligations and Duties of the State. 

The State Constitution — How Framed and Ratified and 
Amended. (Study in this connection Chapter IV of Government 
in Indiana, pages 41-45. See in this text, supplement on Govern- 
ment in Intliana. Study Article IV of Constitution of Indiana.) 

The State Legislature (Chapter IV). 

Powers and Structure and Organization of State Legislatures. 
Compensation of members. How bills are passed. Initiative and 
Referendum. 

The State Executive. (Chapter V.) (Study in this connection 
Chapter IV, pages 45-66 in Government in Indiana.) (See in text. 
Study Articles V and VI, Constitution of Indiana.) 

The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, Election, Qualifica- 
tions, Salaries. Other executive officers. Powers of the Governor; 
Legislative, Executive, Military, and Pardoning. State Civil Serv- 
ice system. Present executives. 

The State Judiciary. (Chapter VI.) (Study in this connection 
Chapter IV, pages 66-71 in Government in Indiana, also Article 
VII, Constitution of Indiana.) Courts of Indiana. Functions 
and grades of Courts. Judges. Distinguish between Civil and 
Criminal laws and describe method of procedure in trial of each. 

Suffrage and Elections. (Chapter VII.) (Study again in this 
connection Article II of the Constitution of Indiana.) 

Qualifications for voting. Woman's Suffrage. Duty to vote. 
Registration requirement. Time and Manner of holding elections. 
History of the Ballot. The Austrahan Ballot. Give all the details 
of the casting of a ballot in Indiana. Is the method the same in all 
states? How are frauds prevented in elections? (Apply to Indi- 
ana.) 

Political Parties and Nominating Methods. (Chapter VIII). 

Nature and Functions of Political Parties. Existing Political 
Parties in the United States. In Indiana. Discuss Party Organi- 
zation Primaries and Laws Controlling them. Nominations: By 
Conventions; by the people; by petition. 

The Establishment of the Union. (Chapter IX.) 

The Articles of Confederation. Defects as shown by the opera- 
tion of the government under them. 

Constitutional Convention of 1787 and its work. Ratification 
of the Constitution. Wherein was the system of government thus 



Civics 57 

enacted, an improvement over that maintained under the Articles 
of Confederation? 

The Two Houses of Congress. (Chapter X.) 

The House of Representatives: Members — number, election, 
apportionment, qualifications, term, compensation. 

Senate: Members — Number, election, apportionment, ciuali- 
fications, term, compensation. What change has there been 
recently in the method of choosing United States Senators? 
Discuss the steps that led to this change. What are the rights and 
privileges of the members of Congress? What are the special 
functions of the Senate? 

Civic and Political Development of Indiana's Statehood. 

Brief survey of the states: (a) Colony of Virginia, (b) Territory 
of the Nation, (c) Statehood Features and defects of the first and 
second constitutions, (d) Is a new constitution now needed? 



Second Term 

(Chapters XI-XX) 

Two Recitations per week 

Organization and Procedure of Congress (Chapter XI). 

Officers, Opening of a New Congress, Oath of office. Adoption 
of Rules, Quorum, Seating of members. Committees, (how 
chosen). Describe all steps that accompany the introduction and 
passage of a bill in the House. In the Senate. What are the 
powers of the Speaker of the House? Compare with the same 
official in England. 

Federal Finance, Taxation, and Money. (Chapter XII.) 

Distinguish between direct and indirect Federal taxes and tell 
what constitutes each. Customs, duties, tariff. The Maximum 
and Minimum Principle — Explain. ^ — What are Internal Revenue 
Taxes? How collected? Name and describe all other sources of 
Federal Revenue. How is this Revenue deposited and expended? 
Describe the Monetary system, and National Bank system. 

The Regulation of Commerce. (Chapter XIII.) 

How is foreign commerce regulated? 

How is interstate Commerce regulated? 

How is interstate railway traffic regulated? 

Discuss Federal Anti-trust Legislation. Pure food regulation. 
Other Important Powers of Congress. (Chapter XIV.) 



58 Uniform Course of Study 

Make a careful study of the postoffice and all topics pertaining 
to this. What are copyrights and patents and how procured? 

Discuss the military power of Congress. Discuss the Army and 
Navy. The present strength of each. The expenditures for their 
maintenance. Rank and Salaries of Officers. 

What of the powers of Congress touching upon Bankruptcy 
legislation? 

The Presidency : Organization and mode of election. (Chapter 
XV.) 

Study this chapter with reference to the research questions on 
pages 296-297. 

The Presidency (Continued) : Inauguration, Powers and 
Duties (Chapter XVI). Study this chapter with reference to the 
research questions, on pages 322-323. 

The Cabinet and the Executive Departments (Chapter XVII). 
Origin and Nature of the Cabinet. 

Give the history and functions of each Department of the Cabi- 
net. " Present members. 

The Federal Judiciary (Chapter XVIII). 

What is the judicial power of the United States? What are the 
regular federal courts? Functions. 

What officials are in these courts? How appointed? 

What special powers have these courts? 

What constitutional protection is afforded in the Federal 
Courts? 

What amendments to the Constitution have affected the courts 
in their duties and privileges and the business in such courts? 

Government of the Territories and Dependencies. (Chapter 
XIX.) 

What power has congress over the territories? Discuss the 
origin of the Territorial System. The Northwest Territory. Rela- 
tion of Indiana to this Territory. Name and describe the govern- 
ment of the fully organized territories of the United States ; of the 
partly organized territories; of the unorganized territories and 
dependencies. 

Citizenship (Chapter XXI). 

Study this chapter with reference to the research questions, 
pages 391-392. 

Indiana: Study of the main functions and problems of the (a) 
County and Township government, (1>) City Government, (c) 
State Government. Deta^ed study of local government in the 
community. 



Civics 59 

References: Readings in Indiana History; Bulletin (Indiana 
University) Davison, "Government in Indiana" (see adopted text 
on American History) Hodgin; ''Indiana and the Nation." Hen- 
dricks, "History and Civil Government of Indiana," Gitteau; 
"Government of Indiana." 



FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

If only two years of foreign language are taken both years' 
work shall be done in one language. 

Two (2) units required. (See page 14.) 

LATIN 

The first end aimed at in the study of Latin should be ability 
to read the language intelligently and at a fair pace. With this 
attained other great advantages, certain to be derived from the 
study, will take care of themselves. The pupil should l)e made to 
feel from the start that with a reasonable expenditure of time, 
energy and with fair ability (good teaching being pre-supposed) 
he can learn to read Latin of average difficulty as he learns to read 
languages other than his own. To secure proper results the study 
should be continuously pursued through four years, of which a 
full year should be devoted to the study of the Elements, a full 
year each to Caesar, to Cicero and to Vergil. In the case of a three 
years' course, Vergil should be omitted. 

First Year 
(Test: Latin for Beginners — D'Ooge.) 

The following introduction to the study of Latin is from the 
"Teachers' Manual to Accompany Latin for Beginners,'' which 
contains, in addition to the introduction, outlines for each lesson. 
The author states that these suggestions are designed primarily 
for inexperienced teachers of first-year Latin and that even for 
them they are to be taken as suggestive merely. Ultimately every 
strong teacher must develop his own method, and the stronger he 
is the less he will feel bound to follow the methods recommended 
oy others. 

As a rule pupils beginning Latin are not well prepared in Eng- 
lish grammar. To meet this defect it has been customary to devote 
some pages to a review of English grammar before the Latin 
grammar is begun. It has seemed a wiser plan to combine the 
review of the former with progress in the latter. Accordingly, in 
this beginners' book explanations of grammatical terms and con- 
cepts are introduced at the points where the study of the Latin 
makes a knowledge of them necessary. Similarly the Latin syntax 
is compared with the corresponding English syntax. Pupils may, 
therefore, begin the Latin lessons at once with no preceding review 
of English grammar. 

(60) 



Latin 61 

The first assignment of work will naturally be the Introduction. 
Call the pupils' attention to the Review Questions on p. 4, and 
use them in the recitation. Besides locating Latium and Rome 
on the map, pronounce the names and have the pupils' locate the 
other districts of Italy and the surrounding seas. Also the Alps, 
Illyricum, Sicily, and Africa should be pointed out. 

For the second class period, read over with the pupils the 
first seven sections and pronounce the Latin example for them to 
imitate. Go over the examples again and again, for an incorrect 
pronunciation acquired at the outset is apt to persist. Assign the 
pronunciation of the examples and §§8-10 for the third class 
period. 

Begin the third class period with the pronunciation of the ex- 
amples in §§5-7. Then have the exercise in §10 written on the 
board and the words divided into syllables and pronounced, being 
careful about the placing of the accent. You will notice that the 
lule given for the division of combinations of two or more con- 
sonants differs from the one formerly observed and still given in 
many books. The old rule has been shown to be incorrect. For 
the fourth class period assign the following lesson: Memorizing 
of the Latin in the exercise and in §10 and the study of §§11-16. 

For the fourth class period have ready on the board a list of 
at least twenty words with the long vowels marked, including, for 
the most part, words used before. First have the pupils recite in- 
dividually and then in concert the Latin exercise in §10. Then, 
using the list, let the pupils divide the words into syllables, give 
the length of each syllable, and pronounce the words. Pupils al- 
ways confound length of vowel and length of syllable (cf. §13.2, 
note). Dwell on this point until the distinction is clear to all. 

Spend the fifth class period in reviewing the whole subject of 
pronunciation and on the reading of the poem (§18). One or 
more stanzas may be assigned for memorizing. The recitation in 
concert of stanzas learned is sure to be stimulating. 

As outlined above, the average class will be ready to begin 
Part II after five recitations. This does not mean that the subject 
of Pronunciation is finished. Much patient effort for many weeks 
to come will be necessary before pupils will pronounce even tol- 
erably well. 

Probably the lack of time will prevent securing during the 
first year more than the correct pronunciation of the individual 
words in a sentence. 



62 Uniform Course of Study 

Conduct of the Lesson 

The Recitation Period. Always devote the first five minutes 
of the recitation period to the explanation and development of the 
work for the next day. Make the assignment definite and do not 
give more than the class can learn and than you are sure you can 
cover in the time allotted. Explain all rules. Pronounce paradigms 
and vocabularies and have the class repeat them. Do not allow 
pupils to accent the final syllables when repeating paradigms. 

After the lesson for the next day has been assigned, review 
rapidly the work of the preceding day. Insist on quick and 
accurate replies to your questions. Blundering and hesitation are 
to be expected in the advance; but the pupil should be made to 
understand that they are not excusable in the review. 

Allowing that one-third of the recitation period has been spent 
as outlined above, the remaining two-thirds can be devoted to 
the lesson of the day. Emphasize its proper subject strongly in 
the recitation of each pupil. Each pupil should be called on at 
least once, and work at the board, as well as the daily recitation 
should be the daily rule. 

Memorizing. Insist on the thorough memorizing of paradigms, 
vocabularies, and rules. Without it progress is impossible. Forms 
must be known so well that they are recognized at once and with- 
out deliberation. Pupils should be able to give instantly the English 
for the Latin and the Latin for the English of the words in a vocab- 
ulary, and to recite rules accurately and without hesitation. 

Learning the Forms. To learn the forms thoroughly incessant 
drill is necessary, both orally and by the use of the blackboard. 
The inflectional system must be mastered the first year, and re- 
quires far more practice than any text-book can provide. 

When a noun is to be declined either orally or at the board, 
train pupils always to give the meaning, the gender, and the base 
before giving the declension. 

When declining an adjective follow the same method as with 
nouns. 

When a verb is to be conjugated either in full or in part, always 
have its meaning, its principal parts, and its stems given first. It 
is far better for pupils to learn the verb by stems than by moods. 
Knowing the stems, tense signs, mood signs, and personal endings, 
and what stem to use for whatever form, the pupil is soon able to 
recognize any form at sight and to give instantly any form of any 
verb of which he knows the principal parts. He should be made 
to understand that until he can do this he does not know the verbs. 



Latin 63 

It is a good plan to write near the top of the blackboard before 
the recitation a number of nouns, adjectives, and verbs, one for 
each member of the class, choosing such words as occur in the 
lesson of the day. Send the pupils to the board and let each write 
the meaning of the word falling to him, give its inflection and 
construct a sentence which shall contain the word in question. 
This exercise may be varied by the teacher writing beforehand 
English instead of Latin words. The pupils will then, first of all, 
have to write the equivalent Latin. 

The rapid recitation of paradigms by successive pupils is help- 
ful: for example, one giving the nominative, another the genitive, 
and so on. Daily practice with the blank declension and conjuga- 
ion schemes to be explained later (see pp. 12, 27) is strongly rec- 
ommended. It all comes to this — that drill on forms cannot be 
overdone. Especially after the class has been over all the regular 
declensions and conjugations this drill should be constant and 
merciless. And the work is not done until every pupil knows every 
form. 

Vocabulary. The learning of words is of no less importance 
than the learning of forms and cannot be emphasized too much. 
The special vocabularies should in each case be thoroughly mas- 
tered before beginning to read the accompanying exercises. 
Train pupils from the very outset to give nouns with the genitive 
and the gender, adjectives with their different gender terminations, 
and verbs with their principal parts. For example, in reply to 
the question "What is the word for master?" the pupil should 
answer, "dominus, domini, masculine"; to the question "What is 
the word for good?" the pupil should answer, ^'honus, -a, -urn"; 
and to the question "What is the word for advise?" the reply should 
be "tnoneo, mo7iere, monul, monitus." 

However well the vocabularies are learned, earnest efforts on 
the part of both pupil and teacher will be found necessary to 
retain them. Much reading of reviews and at sight will be of 
assistance. Attention should also be called to the kindred English 
words that are given in the vocabularies, and the pupil should 
be encouraged to think of others. In the text-book provision is 
made for thoroughj-eviews of words at short intervals. The test 
on these should be rigid. Teachers will be able to devise various 
methods of drilling on words. The following, which may be called 
the vocabulary roll call, has been found especially useful: When 
the class enters the room let it remain standing, each pupil at his 
place. Pronounce words to the different pupils, English words 



64 Uniform Course of Study 

to be translated into Latin or vice versa, and let those who answer 
correctly take their seats, the others remain standing until they 
have done the same. Much enthusiasm can be aroused by letting 
two pupils choose sides for a vocabulary contest, as in a spelling 
match. 

The text-book is so jilanned that all the words to l)e memorized 
are reviewed three times. This fact as well as that no new vocab- 
idaries are assigned aft(>r Lesson LX, should giv(^ anijile time and 
opportunity for drill and study. 

Translation. Sugg(>stions for translating from Latin into Eng- 
lish are given in the text-book, ]). 194. Call th{> pujiils' attention 
to these early in the year and em])hasize the im])ortanc(> of forming 
correct habits from the beginning. It is advisable at intervals 
to call for a written translation of passages of connected Latin. 
In these translations demand good idiomatie English. When you 
have corrected the papers, have two or thre(> of the b(>st ones read 
as models for the rest. This ])ractice will do much to correct the 
translation jargon that the pupils are prone to employ. 

Pui)ils always find it much harder to translate from English 
into Latin than from Latin into English. P^or the first few weeks 
help should be given them for this work. For the first few weeks 
go over the English-Latin exercise wdth the class when you assign 
it, and explain all the difficult points. Do not fail to insist upon 
a correct order of words. It is a good plan to train pupils to 
arrange the English sentence mentally in the proper Latin order 
before turning it into Latin. 

If more practice seems to be needed in turning English into 
Latin tium the book provides, invent some sentences yourself, or 
have the pupils, w'ith closed books, translate into Latin at your 
dictation the English of the preceding Latin Exercise. 

Do not have the translation of the English sentences written 
iin blank books, w'hich are likely to be handed down from class to 
class. 

Sight Reading. A distinguishing feature of the text-book is 
the large amount of simple Latin it contains in the form of dia- 
logues and stories. This material will be found well adapted for 
sight translation, since the selections contain, as a rule, but few 
words not previously learned. Nothing develops reading power 
mor(^ quickly than w^ork of this kind and it should lu> jiracticed 
as frecjuently as possible. 

General Vocabulary and Index. Pupils nvvd some instruction 
in the use of the general Latin-English vocabulary and tlu^ index. 



Latin 65 

Tliis instruction should l)e given as early as §136, where the gen- 
eral voealnilary must be used for the first time. 

Reviews and Formulas. The lesson of the preceding day should 
always he reviewed before the work of the day is taken up. In addition 
the reviews j^rovided for by the text-book at frequent intervals 
should be made thorough. You will find it profitable to make each 
the subject of a written test. The last three lessons in the l)ook 
provide for a review of all the constructions that have b(>en dis- 
cussed. An unusually careful study of these lessons is advisable 
just before taking up Caesar. It would l)e a good plan, therefore, 
to go over them a second time at the l^eginning of the second year. 

To insure completeness and uniformity in the answers to cer- 
tain constantly recurring questions, the following formulas are 
suggested. 1. For describing nouns; dominam, accusative singu- 
lar from domina, dorninae, feminine. Follow this with the rule 
for the case. 2. For describing adjectives: hondrum, genitive 
plural feminine from the adjective bonus, -a, -um to agree with the 
noun . Follow with the rule for the agreement of adjectives. 

3. For describing relative pronouns: quos, accusative plural 
masculine from the relative qui, quae, quod. It is masculine plural 
to agree with its antecedent — (give the rule for the agreement of 
the relative) ; it is in the accusative case because (give the reason), 
according to the rule (give the rule for the case of the relative). 

4. For describing verbs: anient, active subjunctive present from 
amo, amare, aniavi, amatus, third person plural number to agree 

with its subject . It is in the subjunctive mood because 

(give the reason for the mood and rule). 

It leads to better results for the teacher to designate in atl- 
vance in the reading lessons such words as are to be inflected and 
parsed. 

First Term 

Lessons I-XLVI, pages 1-117 

The first six lessons are used to review and re-establish certa'n 
fundanuuital grammatical principles and to (lev(>lop the meaning 
and value of the case forms. American boys and girls have no 
conception of an inflected language, and it is of no profit to them 
to recite paradigms, be it ever so glibly, unless they have some 
comprehension of what inflection means. The different cases have 
therefore, l)e(Mi introduced one at a time, and their fundamental 
values estal)lished as a prime essential to all progress. It is not 

5—5077 



66 Uniform Course of Study 

until Lesson VII, after all the cases have been gone over individu- 
ally, that the first declension is given in full. These first lessons 
will be found very simple, but they have a peculiar value in laying 
the foundation for all that is to follow. 

The following suggestions for Lessons I-IV will serve as a basis 
for later lessons. 

The object of Lesson I is to establish the simplest grammatical 
concepts. When assigning it, pronounce and have repeated by 
the class all the Latin sentences. Ask the pupils to prepare and be 
ready to give English sentences illustrating the subject, object, 
predicate, and verb or copula. 

Place special emphasis upon §22a. 

When assigning Lesson II, pronounce and have the class re- 
peat not merely the Latin words in §§26, 30, but also the Latin 
sentences, § §31.11. 

There are three rules to be learned, § §25, 28, 29. Always make 
a point of having all rules memorized verbatim. 

In Lesson III pronounce and have the class repeat the Latin 
sentences in §§32.1, 34. 

Point out that the gist of §32 is contained in the last sentence 
in §32a. 

In teaching §33 have ready on the board the left half of the 
table which shows the English cases. Then construct the other 
half of the table in the recitation period at the dictation of the 
pupils. 

When assigning Lesson IV, turn to p. 283 and pronounce and 
have the class repeat the first vocabulary, and emphasize the im- 
portance of learning this thoroughly before beginning work on the 
exercises, §39. There should be no need of turning back to the 
vocabulary if it is properly learned. 

Pronounce and have the class repeat the Latin sentences in 
§§39,40. 

In answering such questions as occur in the Conversations, 
as in §40, train the class to answer by a complete sentence and 
not merely by a single word. For example, the answer to the first 
question is not merely den, but Diana est dea. 

In the English-Latin exercise, §39.11, insist upon proper order 
of words. 

Second Term 

Lessons XLVII — Complete text 
Study the directions given at the beginning of the outline in 
Latin, and the suggestions for the first term. 



Caesar 67 

Second Year 
CAESAR 

(Text: Caesar's Gallic War— Walker.) 

Study the definitions given at the beginning of the unit lesson 
in Latin, and the suggestions for the first term. 

The standard college-entrance requirement for the second year 
of Latin is books I to IV of Caesar's Gallic War, or an equivalent, 
with one exercise a week in Latin composition. This amount can 
be covered properly by well prepared classes in a nine-months' 
school year, but is too great for many schools. Teachers who find 
the amount excessive should cover thoroughly as much as possible 
and should have the rest read at sight in the classroom without 
previous preparation. 

Teachers may be advised to postpone or to omit the latter half 
of Book I, because of the great proportion of indirect discourse 
contained in it. The state text is planned to facilitate such post- 
ponement. See Preface, p. 3. If the four-book edition is used. 
Book I may be completed after Book IV. If the seven-book edition 
is used, any of the annotated portions of the last three books will 
be found more interesting. If any portion is to be read wholly 
at sight, chapters 24 to 58 of Book V will be found most suitable 
for the purpose. 

A properly prepared class should read chapters 1 to 29 of Book 
I in ten or eleven weeks. After that the rate of progress should 
be progressively more rapid as Caesar's vocabulary and syntax 
become more familiar. A teacher who expects to read the full 
four books must plan to complete Book I in the first half 3'ear; 
or, preferably, the first half of Book I and the Whole of Book II. 
Books II, III, and IV, or III, IV, and the latter half of I can then 
be read in the second half year. 

The four most important aspects of the second year's work are 
translation, syntax, vocabulary, and a study of the narrative as a 
whole. Of these the most important is training in vigorous, idio- 
matic translation into genuine English, since the best justification 
of Latin in the schools is its influence on English. The Latin 
teacher inevitably teaches English of some sort; it is his duty to 
teach good English. It is no waste of time to insist on a discrimi- 
nating choice of words, the proper construction of every sentence, 
and even the most effective style. An occasional written transla- 
tion, carefully corrected for its English, is helpful. If the English 



08 Uniform Course of Study 

teachers will sometimes accept such a translation in place of an 
original theme, and will correct it in accordance with their usual 
standards, the co-operation will be most helpful. 

A thorough drill in syntax is essential, because both correct 
translation and all hope for the pupil's progress depend on an 
accurate knowledge of the uses of words in sentences. The state 
text affords a special opportunity for syntactical drill in connec- 
tion with the first half of Book I, by giving grammar references 
three times for each important construction. See Preface, p. 2. At 
the end of each chapter is given a list of the constructions for which 
the third references have appeared, so that teachers may know 
easily and definitely what syntactical points the class should have 
mastered. Aside from this, most of the syntactical drill should be 
given in connection with the work in composition. 

Ease and pleasure in translation depend largely on one's 
knowledge of vocabulary. Much time cannot be spared for drill on 
vocabulary, yet some time should be given to it. In the page 
vocal)ularies, which give each Latin word at the time of its first 
occurrence in the text, the state text gives some indications of the 
value of the word for Caesar. The number 1, 2, 3, or 4 indicates 
that the word appears that number of times in Books I to IV; an 
asterisk means that the word ajipears five times or more. If a word 
occurs only once, it would be a waste of time to drill on it. On 
the other hand, it is an advantage to master as thoroughly as pos- 
sible all words marked with an asterisk, since they will occur at 
least four times or more, and will have to be looked up each time in 
the l)ack of the book unless mastered at once. Some drill on such 
words may be recommended. 

Ctesar's narrative is full of interest to those who follow it in- 
telligently, but no narrative has ever been written which would 
be interesting if read at the rate of a few lines a day and with no 
attention to the narrative as a whole. Any effort to make Caesar's 
story known and understood will be repaid by the interest of the 
class. Moreover, the effort is worth making for its general educa- 
tional value, since one of the chief functions of language study is 
training in getting the full meaning out of a printed work. The 
state text attempts to ensure an understanding of the story by its 
maps and notes; but the teacher's co-operation is needed. The 
campaign maps at the beginning of each book should be helpful 
for this purpose. Some teaciiers have found it h(>l})ful to have their 
classes prepare similar maps for themselves. Outline maps of 



Cicero 69 

Caul may l^c obtained at slight expense from The McKinley Pub- 
Hshing Company, Phihidelphia, Pa. 

N. B. — Do not Jet the edition with notes he used in class. 

The publishers furnish a separate copy of the text with every 
cop3^ sold. Insist that the pupils use it in class. If they have 
trouble in getting it, write to the publishers. The notes and vo- 
cabulary are printed on the same page with the text for conven- 
ience in studying, not for class use. 

First Term 
Book I Chapters 1-29. Book II. 

Second Term 
Complete Book I. Books III and IV. 

Third Year 

CICERO 

(Text: Cicero's Orations and Letters^ — Johnston-Kingery.) 

The third year of Latin study is devoted usually to Cicero — 
selected orations alone, or these together with some of his letters. 
The student who has mastered his beginner's book and read 
Caesar should be able now to pay more attention to the elements of 
style. Of course accuracy in grasping the thought and rendering 
it into correct English must be required at all stages of the study 
of any language; but this should at length become largely a mat- 
ter of habit, leaving the student free to feel and reflect some of the 
niceties of expression. He should begin to weigh and discriminate 
between English synonyms and select the best word or phrase for 
the translation of each particular passage. He must not, for 
example, slavishly render res "thing" or "affair," but must note 
its reference in the context and translate accordingly (see note on 
I. 3. 11). The verb dare certainly means "give" and facere "do," 
but in various connections many fine shadings of these funda- 
mental ideas are to be f(>lt and bi'ought out in translation. 

Intense in his feelings and often uni-estrained in his expression 
of them Cicero employed many rhetoi'ical devices, appreciation of 
which is essential to a full understanding of his writings. His 
gr()ui)ing of words in pairs or longer series, his use of asyndeton, of 
oxymoron, of exclamations involving nouns, infinitive i)lirases or 



70 Uniform Course of Study 

w/-clauses, his accurate and consistent use of the subjunctive, his 
delicate shading of ideas in conditional sentences, are but a few of 
the features of a style which has come to be accepted as the best 
type of Latinity. 

It is common to read first the four orations in Catilinam, and 
this is well. Yet in many cases a class may profitably omit one, 
say the second, and take instead an equivalent amount from other 
orations or from the letters. Some teachers prefer to present the 
speeches in their chronological order, bringing in the "ManiHan 
Law" {de hnperio Pompeii) before the Catilines. In favor of this 
is the further fact that this oration is outlined very fully and 
clearly by its author and consequently is easier to read under- 
standingly. If this course be followed the order for classes using 
the smaller edition of the Cicero will be M.L., I, II, III, IV, 
Archias, with such use of the letters and the Sallust as the teacher 
may determine. 

The ten-oration edition offers a much wider range of reading. 
To the six orations and twelve letters of the smaller book are added 
the opening argument against Verres — Cicero's first great legal 
success — and a vivid passage from the latter (unspoken) arraign- 
ment; two of the "Caesarian" orations; the fourth Phihppic; and 
nine more letters illustrating phases of the orator's later life. This 
enables the teacher to vary the programme from year to year, sub- 
stituting the Verres or some of the later speeches for one or another 
of those more commonly studied. Between the Verres, at the 
beginning of Cicero's career, and the Philippic, delivered less than 
a year before his death, was an interval of more than twenty- 
seven years, and the careful student will be interested in seeing 
what difference he can detect between the orator's style at thirty- 
six and sixty-three. 

With either edition the letters may be used for regularly as- 
signed study, for mere illustration or for sight reading. They re- 
veal the human side of their author as his public speeches cannot 
do, and their style is more colloquial. 

Sallust's history of the Catilinarian conspiracy, which is given 
practically entire, may be read as a whole or merely used for refer- 
ence. If time permits no more, the teacher may well read to the 
class — while its members follow with the text before them — the 
portions Ijearing on the contents of each oration as studied, noting 
points of agreement or differences between the two authors. The 
speeches of Caesar and Cato in chapters 51, 52, may be compared 
with Cicero's fourth in Catilinam, which was made in the course of 



Cicero 71 

the same debate. In the same connection may be read letter 17, 
showing how the orator felt long afterward regarding his own and 
Cato's part in the affair. 

Formal study of the grammar in connection with Cicero will, 
aside from needed review, deal especially with the matter of com- 
plex sentences and the use of moods, and this will naturally be em- 
phasized also in the work in composition. The review questions at 
the end of the notes of each chapter in orations I and II are in- 
tended to aid in keeping fresh in mind constructions already learn- 
ed. The list can be extended by the teacher at will. 

The Introduction may be assigned for study as a whole in les- 
sons of convenient length, or the parts bearing on each oration may 
be taken in connection with it — §§1-43 of the Life of Cicero in 
preparation for the reading of Oration I; §§44-50 for III; §§51-59 
for IV, etc. The second part of the Introduction, dealing with 
"The Roman Commonwealth," may be studied in formal lessons, 
or read in class with necessary elaboration and explanation and 
then used for reference. Special topics, wdth references also to 
larger works, may be assigned to students for reports — say on the 
powers and duties of the different officials, the functions of the 
senate, the curus honorum, Roman courts and juries, etc., ad lib. 

The school librarj^ will of course contain many of the books 
named on pp. 73, 74, with others, and the use of these should be 
encouraged in every way for the sake of added information and in- 
terest and the formation of the habit of collateral reading. When 
to this is added the judicious use of maps, pictures and other illus- 
trative material the student should be able to form some concep- 
tion of the life of Cicero's day, and, seeing their setting, appreciate 
more fully his speechs and letters. 

A difficulty often experienced is that of getting the class to 
comprehend an oration as a logical whole. Reading a small portion 
each day and centering his attention on the difficulties of language 
and style the student is too apt to forget the larger purpose of the 
whole argument. It is a good practice, therefore, for the teacher 
■ — or even better for some member of the class — to take a recita- 
tion period on the completion of an oration and read it through 
at one sitting, while the others follow his translation with the text 
before them. Any one of the Catiline orations can easily be trans- 
lated thus in less than forty minutes. 



72 Uniform Course of Study 

First Term 
M.L. and Orutions Against Catiline I-II. 

Second Term 
Orations Against Catiline III-IV. Aiehias. 

Fourth Year 
VERGIL 

(Text: Vergil's Aeneid — Knapp.) 

The primary purpose of a eourse in Vergil, it is needless to 
say, is to read and to understand Vergil himself. To that end all 
else should be sul)ordinated. Yet, in the accomplishment of this 
})rimary purpose should be achieved, naturally, most, if not all, 
of the results named below as a desirable outcome of the study of 
Vergil. 

With respect to the reading of Vergil by a given class little 
real help can be given to the teacher of that class by any one 
else. No one else will know so well as the individual teacher the 
preparation or the lack of preparation of the class under his 
direction. No one else will know so well the amount of time 
available for the course. Some general hints may, however, be of 
service. (1) The teacher should make sure that the lack of prep- 
aration is not chargeable to himself. Knowledge and personality 
arc the things that count most in teaching. With the aids sup- 
plied in Knapp's Vergil, either directly or through the biblio- 
graphical material given there (see especially §§315-318, the In- 
troduction), the teacher can, if so minded, make adequate prepara- 
tion for his important task. (2) If the time is lacking for the 
proper reading of Aeneid I-VI complete. Books III and V may be 
read more rapidly or may be omitted entirely. (3) The total 
number of verses to be covered in the entire year should be di- 
vided by the toal number of periods available. This will give the 
average number of verses to be covered per period. At first the 
number of verses assigned per lesson should be much below the 
average. (4) Reading at sight may be practiced from day to day, 
in part in connection with atlvanced lessons for the next period, 
in part also in connection with the selections given from Books 
VII-XII. 

From the study of Vergil certain results should be gained, in 
the order here named: (1) An appreciation of the difference 



Vergil 73 

between the language of Latin prose and the language of Latin 
poetry; (2) an appreciation of poetical from (meter and versi- 
fication) as a vital element in poetry; (3) some idea of Grseco- 
Roman mythology and religion; (4) some conception of the im- 
pression made on the Romans by the history of Rome; (5) Ver- 
gil's purpose in writing the Aeneid and the way in which that pur- 
pose was accomplished; (6) Vergil's merits; (7) Vergil's re- 
lation to his contemporaries, in literature and in public life both, 
and to his literary predecessors; (8) Vergil's influence on later 
ages. 

Toward the realization of these purposes help will be found in 
Knapp's Vergil. 

To obtain the first result cited in the preceding paragraphs the 
Introduction, §§86-225, will be of great service. The teacher 
should pick out the paragraphs that seem to him of most impor- 
tance, and should drill the pupils on these, as the matters involved 
in them are met in the actual reading of Vergil. Some paragraphs 
(e. g. 87-110) may be long postponed; indeed, the pupil may be 
left to use them as he needs them, from time to time, for the ex- 
planation of forms that give him trouble. Otlier paragraphs 
should be mastered early. Tastes wall differ here, as elsewhere, but 
§§113-117, 122, 124, 125, 127, 128, 136-139, 140-144, 160-170, 
191-203 are surely important. With the aid of the Introduction 
and even more of the Index the teacher can always provide himself 
with an adequate array of illustrations of points under discussion. 
One important matter may here be noted; in illustrating usages 
the teacher should employ only passages already studied by the 
pupil. In seeking to understand a passage in Book I, for example, 
the pupil will derive no benefit from a passage in a later book 
which he has not yet read. 

For the second result cited above, §§226-238 of the Introduc- 
tion are of first importance; (§§239-260 may be postponed for a 
time; some of them may be omitted). Before allowing the pupil 
to try to read Vergil metrically the teacher should drill the pupils 
on certain fundamental rules of quantity, which, if mastered, will 
enable the pupil to determine at once the quantity of most Latin 
syllables. These are (a) the quantity of syllables made up of 
diphthongs or containing diphthongs; (b) the quantity of a vowel 
before another vowel or h; (c) the quantity of final syllables, first 
those ending in a vowel, then those ending in a consonant, ex- 
pecially s; (d) the quantity of vowels in the "increment," first of 
nouns, then of verbs; (c) the quantity of the first sylla1)le of a (lis- 



74 Uniform Course of Study 

syllabic perfect or supine; (f) the quantity of the first two syllables 
of reduplicated perfects; (g) the quantity of the vowel before nf 
or ns. Then, after the teacher has carefully read in class some 
verses, the pupil should write out, from day to day, for a time the 
'scansion' of some verses, and, finally, should try reading verses 
aloud. See, in this connection, H. W. Johnston, The Teaching of 
Vergil in the High School (Scott, Foresman and Co., Chicago, 1901) ; 
Knapp, The Scansion of Vergil and the Schools, in The Classical 
Weekly 3 (1909); 2-5, 10-12; Miss K. E. Carver, Teaching Latin 
as Literature, in The Classical Weekly 7 (1914), 186-187. 

Knapp's Introduction, §§267-305, will assist in reaching the 
third result. Of very great value here is such a book as Gayley, 
The Classic Myths in English Literature and in Art (Revised edi- 
tion, 1911, Ginn and Co., Boston). 

In relation to results (4) and (5) see Knapp, Introduction §§48- 
77. Of service also will be Knapp, Some Points in The Literary 
Study of Vergil, in The School Review 13 (1905), 492-508, and 
Knapp, The Originality of Latin Literature, in The Classical Jour- 
nal 3 (1909), 251-260, 299-307. 

See, also, Rand, Virgil and the Drama, in The Classical Journal 
4 (1908), 22-33, 51-61, and Yeames, On Teaching of Vergil, in The 
School Review 20 (1912), 1-26. 

Seller's valuable book, Vergil (Oxford University Press, 2d 
edition, 1883), Glover's Studies in Vergil (2d edition. New York, 
1912), and the chapters on Vergil in Makail's Latin Literature 
and in Duff's A Literary History of Rome should be at the teacher's 
elbow at all times. 

Knapp's Vergil, §78, and the books referred to above, under 
(4) and (5), relate to result (6). 

Knapp's Introduction §§69-75 and the books referred to in (4) 
and (5) relate to result (7). 

For references touching upon result (8) see Knapp's Vergil, 
§ §79-85, and the books referred to under (4) and (5). Add to these 
Comparetti, Vergil in the Middle Ages (New York, 1895), Tunison, 
Master Virgil (Cincinnati, 1890); Leland, The Unpublished 
Legends of Vergil (New York, 1900). 

First Term 

Vergil's Aeneid: Books I and II. 

(For Book III, see suggestions in Introduction.) 



German 75 

Second Term 

Vergil's Aeneid: Books IV and VI. 

(For Book V, see suggestions in introduction.) 

GERMAN 

(Texts: Essentials in German — Vos 

or 

Beginner's German — Walter and Krause.) 

Either of the adopted texts may be used, according to the 
choice of the school and the method employed. 

Little encouragement should be given the student to take up 
the work in German unless he expects to continue it for at least 
two years. A single year of German has no very great value. 

In three or four years the student should master the prin- 
ciples of grammar and acquire so much of a vocabulary as will 
enable him to read not too difficult German with some ease and 
fluency and to understand when spoken to, as well as express him- 
self in a simple way in the foreign idiom. Some of the time often 
spent in translation might well be given to conversational exercises 
and the construction of simple sentences. 

Constant drill in reading at sight and from dictation should be 
given so that the student may be impressed that it is not so much 
any one book that he is styding as a language. The pronuncia- 
tion should be carefully watched, especially during the first year, 
to guard against a careless and slovenly pronunciation. 

Too much stress can hardly be laid on the continued review of 
grammatical principles. 

The following suggestions on the study of German are taken 
from the recommendations of the National Education Association 
Committee on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. Bulle- 
tin 1913, No. 41, U. S. Bureau of Education. 

An abundance of dictionaries should be at all times of easy 
access. Thieme-Preusser, Fliigel, Flligel-Schmidt-Tanger, and 
Cassel are excellent. 

Magazines, preferably illustrated, and newspapers should be 
placed in the hands of the students, and a Conversation Club will 
also be of great service to keep the pupils alert and interested. 

The aims in the study of German, are: 

(1) To secure a reasonable degree of phonetic accuracy and 
lead the pupil to feel its importance. 



76 Uniform Course of Study 

For the child, speech has l)een a more or less unconscious pro- 
cess. Witii the study of a foreign langi^i'i^S^' li^' should discover the 
necessity of making sounds and their fornuition the ol)ject of care- 
ful attention. He should gain thereby a conscious control of his 
speech organs; should develop his i^ower to use them as he wills; 
should learn to feel the significance of sound distinctions, and to 
enunciate clearly whenever he speaks. The slovenly mumbling 
that so often passes for English speech sufficiently emphasizes the 
need of this. 

(2) To teach precision in the use of words and to give a clear 
understanding of grammatical relations and of the common terms 
which state them, showing why such terms are necessary. 

The child's own language has l)een so much a part of his very 
being that it is extremely difficult for him to look upon it as a 
proper object of study. The normal child feels competent, without 
any rules, to speak in a perfectly satisfactory way. And If well 
born and reared he ought to be. To learn to employ the terms of 
grammar seems to him a most unnecessary and foolish thing. After 
reading or hearing that John struck James, he gains no further 
information by being told that John is the subject of the sentence, 
and he can not conceive of any human being so stupid that he must 
be told that John is the subject before knowing which ]:»oy struck 
the other. When he knows offhand how words go together, why 
should he learn strange, odd-sounding terms to explain relations 
which to him need no explanation? That is the puzzling mystery 
which very often befogs the boy who "can't understand grammar." 
He is confused by the attempt to explain to him by mysterious 
vocables what seems perfactly clear without any explanation. In 
the case of a foreign language the child comes easdy to see the 
need and the use of grammar, if from the beginning it is made what 
it should be, the handmaid of the text. 

Vagueness of the thought associated with a word is even more 
common than faulty enunciation. The study of the foreign lan- 
guage shows the importance of knowing the exact meaning of 
words and of using them with care. 

(3) To stinmlate the pupil's interest in the foreign nation, lead- 
ing him to i)ei'ceive that the strange sounds are but new ways of 
communicating thoughts quite like his own; showing him by the 
close resemblance in words and viewpoints that the German and 
the Frenchman are his kinsmen, with interests, ambitions, and 
hopes like his own; revealing to him that their tales can give him 
pleasure, their wisdom can enlighten him. 



German 77 

In seeking to attain the special ends for which any subject is pe- 
culiarly well adapted, the real teacher will ever bear in mind those 
general aims that are indispensable in all teaching that is worthy to 
be called education. Habits of industry, concentration, accurate 
observation, intelligent discrimination, systematic arrangement 
and presentation, careful memorizing, independent thinking so 
far outweigh the advantages gained merely by knowing something 
about a particular topic that they are perhaps too generally as- 
sumed to be universal, and, like the air we breathe or the water we 
drink are sometimes forgotten or neglected. The personality 
of the teacher and the manner in which he works, rather than the 
subject he teaches or the method he uses, will make for those 
elements which, after all, are the great objects of secondary edu- 
cation, the business of which is indeed to impart knowledge that 
is likely to be useful, but far more to develop in the child those 
tastes, powers, and habits that fit for happy, efficient living. 

Among processes that are employed in the teaching of Ger- 
man we may mention grammatical study, reading aloud, writing 
from dictation, conversation, translation from and into foreign 
language (version and theme), reproduction orally or in writ.ng, 
paraphrasing, composition based on the text, and free composition. 
It is not intended to say what processes should be used or how they 
should be combined by any teacher, but the following suggestions 
are offered for making as effective as possible whatever work the 
teacher may decide to undertake. 

For all pupils in a secondary school Grammar must be the 
hand-maid of the text and must be regarded as existing solely in 
order to make clearer the language which it serves. The need of a 
rule and its application should be apparent to the pupil before he 
is required to learn the rule; words should be seen in use with a 
context before they are classified and memorized; the force of an 
inflection should be made plain from its use in a word group be- 
fore the pupil is asked to inflect the paradigm; and in the unceas- 
ing repetition necessary to fix inflectional forms, care should be 
taken that they are never parrot-like repetitions, devoid of 
thought. Make the text the center of all inflection; base it upon 
grammar, conversation, and composition; and the grammatical 
knowledge dei-ived from the text as a model will be applied in- 
telligently in written and oral expression. 

Reading aloud — now too much neglected in the mother 
tongue — should be a favorite exercise. With large classes no drill 
is so effective in teaching pronunciation as reading in unison after 



78 Uniform Course of Study 

the teacher. In later work intelligent reading aloud is helpful in 
fixing the foreign language in the memory; it may take the place 
of translation where the simpler character of the text and the 
manner of reading give sufficient evidence that the meaning is 
clear; and the practice is enjoyable and useful to those who form 
the habit of reading aloud in their own study. 

Writing from dictation has always been much employed in 
French schools for French children learning their own language, 
and it is much to be commended. While less difficult than repro- 
duction or paraphrasing, it is an admirable test of the care with 
which a passage has been studied, and the dictation of unseen pas- 
sages is an excellent criterion of the pupil's ability to understand 
the spoken language. Dictation may begin early in the course, 
and until the very end it will be found useful both as a test and as 
training. 

Conversation has been alternately praised and condemned. 
Some regard it as enlivening, stimulating, and instructive — the 
most enjoyable and profitable of all exercises. To others it is 
futile, inane, productive of no valuable results, and terribly 
wasteful of time. It seems clear that not all teachers and not all 
classes can use conversation to good advantage in high-school 
work. The teacher must be inspiring and perfectly at home in the 
language; the class must be alert, responsive and homogeneous; 
the work must be systematically planned and followed out swiftly 
and directly to a definite end. Otherwise the time can be spent 
better in other ways. With large classes the necessary conditions 
rarely obtain, and unfortunately most high-school classes are too 
large for the best work. Although conversation as a formal class 
exercise is apt to be a failure, there is no class in which a compe- 
tent teacher will not find many opportunities to converse easily 
in the foreign language, now giving a simple explanation, now ask- 
ing a question and getting an easy answer, all so naturally that no 
one seems aware that the foreign language is used. The more of 
this the better. Conversation of this kind is the straight road to 
effective possession of a language; neither strained nor forced, it 
is good work. 

Translation, too, has its warm friends and its bitter enemies. 
Reformers have worked as hard to drive it out of the class as they 
have done to drag conversation in; but theme and version are 
still neither dead nor moribund, and there is no prospect that an 
exercise which has maintained itself since the^beginning of lan- 
guage study is going to vanish in the next generation or two. The 



German 79 

difficulty is that the meat in the sandwich has a tendency to drop 
out and leave only the bare bread — voces ct inter eas nihil — 
in other words, that translation comes to be a mechanical sub- 
stitution of the words of one language for the words of another, 
with little or no thought in the process, while translation ought to 
mean the study of a passage until its thought is clearly appre- 
hended, and then an effort to put that exact thought into the other 
language with all the force and beauty that our command of the 
second language makes possible. This, of course, is translation 
of the ideal sort, but it is the kind of translation at which all 
translation should aim, and the only kind which will contribute 
effectively to a command of the foreign language and an apprecia- 
tion of its qualities. With the other more common kind of trans- 
lation the pupil never reads French or German, but only the 
shabby English into which he has more or less correctly para- 
phrased the original; he never writes real French or German, 
but only English with a foreign vocabulary. Such translation 
is rightly condemned as vicious and demoralizing, a veritable 
hindrance to the learner; but only the most vigorous and persis- 
tent efforts will keep the beginner from translating in just that 
way. Among helpful devices for preventing it we suggest oral 
translation of sentences heard but not seen, the translation, with 
book closed, of a sentence that the pupil has just read, or other 
ways for avoiding the mot a mot and securing a grasp of the 
word group as a whole with a complete meaning. 

"What do you mean?" "So and so." "Then say that!" 
will sometimes get a real translation instead of the monstrosity 
that has been first offered by the pupil. 

Underlying all the discussion for and against translation is 
the inevitable fact that not one student in a thousand can expect 
to gain such control of a second language that he can frame his 
thought in it as quickly and effectively as in his own; hence, 
whenever a thing is to him real and important, he will think it 
through first in the vernacular, after which any expression of the 
thought in a second language can not fail to be more or less con- 
sciously and directly a translation. The foreign correspondent 
must translate when he communicates the information received 
from abroad; he must translate when he writes in a foreign lan- 
guage the instructions received in English from his employer; 
the engineer, the lawyer, the physician, the scientist, the phi- 
losopher, the author must all translate when they proceed to use 
in their business the informtion gleaned from foreign sources. 



80 Uniform Course of Study 

Even the teacher must translate when he tells his associates what 
our colleagues in France or Germany say of the direct methods. 
The practical thing then, is to train the pupil to translate as he 
ought, and to depend for his expression in the new language, not 
on dictionai^' substitutes, but on the treasure of foreign words 
and expressions which he has acquired and learned to associate 
with their correct meaning. And the time to teach him this, 
which is no easy thing to learn, is while he is learning the lan- 
guage, for practice in doing it must be long and careful if it is to be 
successful. 

To read and understand a foreign language is much easier 
than to speak or write in it. Until, however, one can give in his 
own language a swift and accurate rendering of what he has read, 
there is good reason to doubt whether he has been satisfied with 
the vague sort of semicomprehension which, if unchallenged, 
sometimes passes for understanding when our pupils read the 
mother tongue. Inability to translate rapidly and well must im- 
ply either inability to understand clearly what has been read or 
else a poor command of English. In the latter, the American boy 
or girl needs nothing so much as just the kind of training in Eng- 
lish which this translation affords: if the former, we need to try 
the pupil by the test which most swiftly and certainly reveals 
the weakness. Hence translation of the right sort, both from and 
into foreign language, must not be omitted from the high school 
courses. 

On the other hand the student must be taught to get thought 
directly from the original, and instruction in the foreign language 
is not intended primarily as instruction in English. So the wise 
t(>acher will give but a portion of his time to translation, and he 
will avoid too great use of spoken English by having a consider- 
able part of the translation which he deems necessary written 
rather than oral. 

The only safe use of a foreign language is that which imitates 
the expressions of scholarly natives. Hence all work of the learner 
must be based on good models and the stages of imitation seem to 
be: Exact reproduction: paraphasing, with variations of per- 
son, numlxu', tense, etc., and substitution of other suitable words 
for thos(^ of the text: free reproduction or composition based on 
the text and closely following it* and free composition. 



German 81 



FIRST YEAR 



There exists a very wide difference of opinion as to the choice 
of material to be used with beginners. Aside from classes that 
for the first year study the grammar only— may their number ever 
grow less— the texts used may be roughly classified as— 

(1) Conversation manuals, based on daily life, foreign travel, 

etc. 

(2) Selections from historical or scientific readings, regarded 

as having intrinsic value. 

(3) Fiction, fairy tales, etc., regarded as having little in- 
trinsic value, but suited to interest and attract the pupil. 

(4) Texts of literary reputation, as Telemaque. 

However varying tastes and circumstances may influence 
the decision among these groups, it is reasonable to assume that 
the nation whose history, literature, or commercial importance 
makes its language worth studying should have elements of in- 
terest for every intelligent person, and that arousing this interest 
must play an important part both in opening a field of whole- 
some enjoyment and in stimulating a desire to contiliue the sub- 
ject gladly and diligently. 

Having agreed, see Introduction, that our first aims should be 
phonetic training, grammatical comprehension, and interest in 
the foreign nation, and that our next should treat largely of the 
life of the people and be of the simplest type, we come next to the 
question of details in the treatment of this material. Experience 
indicates that in this respect no universal agreement can be 
secured, but certain general principles of procedure may be sug- 
gested and certain .dangers of common practice may be ponited 
out. 

First, the time devoted at the beginning to learning accurately 
the sounds of the new language is usually quite insufficient. It 
would be advantageous if an arrangement could be made by which 
for several weeks no home study would be assigned in a foreign 
language, allowing teachers of other subjects to utilize that time in 
exchange for classroom time. In this way all work done in the new 
language might be done in class and under the direction of the 
teacher. If home lessons must be assigned during those first few 
weeks, they should be such as to involve the least possible danger 
of fixing wrong speech habits. The use of phonetic script prob- 
ably makes it possible to assign home work with less danger of as- 
sociating wrong sounds with the normal spelling. If it is not 



G— 5077 



82 Uniform Course of Study 

thought wise to use the phonetic script, keep the vocabulary small, 
repeat the same words again and again with all the variety of 
simple real uses that the ingenuity of the teacher can discover; 
let home work include nothing that has not been exhaustively 
worked over in class. Much copying of text and writing out at 
home the most useful inflections of a very large number of words 
will fill up the time out of class that some teachers feel obliged 
to demand lest pupils get at first the unfortunate impression that 
the new study is a "cinch." 

Using a vocabulary should mean more than merely finding an 
English substitue for a foreign word. The second and more 
important part is visualizing or otherwise securing a clear and 
definite concept of what is meant, then associating permanently 
this concept, and not the English word with the foreign word. 
If this asso('iatii)n of concept and foreign word can be secured as 
swiftly and certainly without the intervention of English, the 
English, of course, is superfluous; but, if English is the quick- 
est and most convenient means of securing this association, there 
seems to be no valid reason for depriving ourselves of its aid. 
Only with or without English, we must not fail to attain as our 
result a direct and accurate association of thought and the 
foreign word. 

The first year should be given to the systematic study of the 
subject-matter in the adopted text-book. 

The reading should be started as early as possible in some such 
books as ''German Stories Retold," Kern, and continued in 
"Immensee" such books as Guerber's"MarchenundErzahlungen." 

First Term 
Vos: Lessons I-XVII. 

or 
Walter and Krause: Lessons I-XX1\'. 

Second Term 
Vos: Complete. 

or 
Walter and Krause: Complete. 



German 83 

SECOND YEAR 
First Term 

Continue the study of simple stories in Readers. Practice in 
conversation and composition. 

Study: "Immensee" — Storm: "Hoher als die Kirche," Hil- 
lern. 

Second Term 

Stories in Readers. Practice in Conversation and Composi- 
tion. 

Study: "Willkommen in Deutschland," Mosher. "Das 
Edle Blut," Wildenbruch. 

THIRD YEAR 
First Term 

Stories in Reader. Practice in Conversation and Composi- 
tion. 

Study: "Flachsmann als Erzieher," Ernst; "Die Journa- 
listen," Freytag. 

Second Term 

Stories in Reader. Practice in Conversation and Composi- 
tion. 

Study: "Die Jungfrau von Orleans" or "Maria Stuart," 
Schiller. 

FOURTH YEAR 

First Term 

Stories in Readers. Practice in Conversation and Composi- 
tion. 

Study: "Hermann und Dorothea," Goethe. 

Second Term 

Stories in Readers. Practice in Conversation and Composi- 
tion. 

Study: "Minna von Barnhelm," Lessing. 



MATHEMATICS 



In case but two years' work is done in mathematics, one year 
shall be in Algebra and one year in Plane Geometry, 

(Two units required. See page 14.) 
The Course — 

First Year — Algebra. 

Second Year — Algebra, half year; geometry, half year. 
Third Year — Geometry completed, plane and solid. 
Fourth Year — Commercial Arithmetic, half year. 

Some teachers prefer the following arrangement: 
First Year — Algebra. 
Second Year — Geometry, plane. 

Third Year — Algebra, half year; solid Geometry, half year. 
Fourth Year — Commercial Arithmetic, half year. 

ALGEBRA 

(Text: Wells and Hart.) 

The Wells and Hart New High School Algebra embodies the 
suggestions on the Course in Algebra which have appeared in the 
Uniform Course of Study in recent years. The consequence is 
that a satisfactory course in algebra will result from simply teach- 
ing the topics as they are given in the text and in the order in 
which they are given in the text. 

Point of View of the Text. — Teachers will get the point of view 
of the authors by reading the Preface of the text on pages iii and 
iv. Attention may be directed particularly to the last paragraph 
on page iii and the first three paragra})hs on page iv. 

Use of the Teaching Done in the Text. — In many cases it may 
b(> wise to simply read over the illustrative example oi' the "dv- 
velopment" given in the text. Good results will follow if the text- 
book instruction oi' some similar instruction is taken up in class in 
a careful manner before any exanq^lcs of tiie kind in question are 
assigned for study outside of class. One good plan is to start the 
teaching of a new idea at the verj^ beginning of the period so that 

(84) 



Algebra 85 

there will be a sufficient a'mount of time in which to do it thor- 
oughly. 

The developments in the text will prove useful also in assisting 
backward students in catching up with the class — such students 
being required to write out the answers to the questions proposed, 
as in the development on page 127. 

The Rules; Their Use.- — The rules are printed in a manner 
which renders their use easy. Students should be encouraged 
from the start to turn to the appropriate rule when in difficulty; 
to read the first step and do as directed; then to read the second 
step; etc. 

Whether or not students should be required to memorize the 
rules is a matter for the individual teacher to decide. It is more 
important that a child should thoroughly understand the rule, 
know where it is to be found, and know how to use it, than merely 
to be able to repeat it. Many teachers prefer to emphasize the 
use of the rules and consequently have little interest in efforts 
to get students to memorize them. 

Abstract Examples. — The text contains a large number of ex- 
amples to meet the various classroom needs of teachers. Enough 
examples have been given so that teachers will be able to have an 
abundance of drill work without dictating any examples; so that 
those who wish to send the whole class to the board but do not 
wish to have neighboring students doing the same example will 
find enough in the text; so that the teacher may assign optional 
examples to the bright student who does not have enough to do 
to keep him busy and additional examples to the weak student who 
needs additional instruction. The result is that for the small class 
and in schools having only an eight months' school year it may be 
unwise to attempt to solve, in the classroom, all of the examples; 
certainly would it be unwise to attempt to have every pupil solve 
every example. 

Toward the end of each list there are some examples which are 
a little more difficult than the rest; at the beginning of many of 
the lists are examples which may and should be solved mentally. 

Examples like those on page 119, numbers 40-58, may be re- 
garded as supplementary examph^s. 

Problems. — ^For the same reasons given in th(> preceding sec- 
tion a larg(^ num])er of problems also is given and, as in the case 
of examples, it may be unwise to attempt to have every problem 
solved in class. In some schools where conditions render it neces- 
sary to economize in time, the following types may be regarded 



86 Uniform Course of Study 

as supplementary and may be omitted without interfering with 
the rest of the course. Examples 3-8 of Exercise 10; paragraphs 
44, 84, 143, 144, 172, 173, 174, and pages 289-296. 

One of the best plans for teaching problems is to take them up 
first in class, having the students work out the equations but not 
solve the equations. Then, for the next study assignment, have 
the pupils study the same problems, requesting them to form the 
equations and solve them completely. Each type is preceded by 
a translation exercise which should never be omitted ; thus. Exer- 
cise 38 should be done to prepare for Exercise 39. 

Form and Methods of Solving Examples. — The illustrative solu- 
tions given in the text may well be regarded as models for the 
solution of corresponding examples by the pupils. Particular at- 
tention is directed to the symbols introduced in paragraph 42. 
Teachers will find that with a little insistence upon the use of 
these symbols by the pupils, as illustrated in Example 11, page 49, 
they can succeed in getting students to use the symbols both in- 
telligently and effectively. The solution of equations by means of 
the axioms with the aid of these symbols is continued until page 
98 in order to avoid meaningless mechanical solutions by trans- 
position and clearing of fractions. 

Amount of Text to Cover. — It is desirable to decide at the be- 
ginning of they.ear upon the amount to be attempted during differ- 
ent parts of the year; to decide that by> Christmas-time so many 
chapters will be covered; that so many pages will be covered by 
the close of the first semester, and so on. Just how much can be 
done in any particular school depends upon local conditions. It 
is of course more important that the instruction shall be thorough 
than that it shall be spread out over much ground. Neverthe- 
less there is danger that without some such schedule too much 
time may be devoted to parts of the course. 

Requirements in algebra for entrance to college are covered 
adequately in the first four hundred pages. Three semesters are 
usually allowed for completing this work. In Chapter XXVI 
some miscellaneous supplementary topics are given for those 
teachers who desire them. 

FIRST YEAR 

It is recommended that such shorter term schools as cannot 
cover these outlines thoroughly, in the time allotted, omit sup- 
plemental exercises and some of the problems as suggested in the 
Introduction to this subject. 



Geometry 87 

First Term 
Chapters I-VIII, pages 1 to 154. 

Second Term 
Chapters IX-XV, pages 154 to 280. 

SECOND YEAR 

First Term 

Chapters XVI-XXVI, pages 280 to 421. 

Schools where conditions render a briefer course necessary 
may omit the material termed supplementary in this outline. In 
extreme cases the chapter on logarithms may be omitted, as many 
colleges do not demand it; also Chapter XXIV may be postponed 
until the course in geometry is taken. These omissions will not 
interfere with the balance of the course. 

GEOMETRY 

Second Term 
(Text: Wentworth-Smith.) 

1. Introduction. — It is desirable to devote the first few days 
to leading the class to a knowledge of what geometry is, what its 
purposes are, what instruments are used, and how simple figures 
are drawn. The basis for this work is provided in pages 1-24. If 
the time permits, a few simple measurements of heights and dis- 
tances may be taken out of doors so as to accustom the class to 
thinking of geometry figures in space. Any considerable amount 
of preparatory work of this kind is not necessary, however, with 
a class as advanced as the one beginning geometry. 

2. Formal Plane Geometry. — The formal part of plane geom- 
etry covers pp. 25-272 of the text, but, as the authors state, not all 
of this work is intended for any one class. Teachers should feel 
free to select such exercises as they believe best suited to the needs 
of the students and to eliminate certain propositions and corol- 
laries not needed for the proof of subsequent propositions. It 
must be remembered that the purposes of the proved propositions 
are three-fold: (1) To set forth the great basal facts which are 
used in proving other important propositions; (2) To present to 
the student other facts which are very helpful in the exercises, but 



88 Uniform Course of Study 

are not indispensable; (3) To keep before the student models of 
good form which he can follow in his original work. While it is 
desirable, therefore, to take all the standard propositions of which 
the proofs are given, a certain number may be omitted without 
breaking the sequence, and should be omitted with certain classes 
and individuals. The teacher's good judgment will determine the 
students from whom such proofs should not be required. 

3. The Incommensurable Case. — Now that geometry is taught 
to a relatively larger class of pupils than formerly it is well to 
recognize that certain difficulties of theory which were once re- 
quired should be made optional. Chief of these is the incommen- 
surable case. It is no longer required for entrance to college, and 
the teacher's attitude may properly be that this case shall not be 
taught to all students. The first time it is met the teacher should 
carefully develop it; the proof as given in the book should then 
be read aloud with the class, the teacher making certain that it is 
understood, and showing that a strict adherence to logic would re- 
quire it as a part of the sequence of work; but thereafter only the 
commensurable case need be required, although the best students 
may be encouraged to take the incommensurable one also, and to 
recite upon it if they have mastered it. In this way both classes 
of students are given due consideration. 

4. Limits. — What has been said of the incommensurable case 
applies also to the theory of limits. Much less is made of it than 
was formerly the case, and all that is to be expected is that a 
pupil shall have a fair idea of the meaning of the statements re- 
lating to a limit. The subject is not a part of a strict sequence in 
geometry; it is introduced only for a few cases in measurements; 
and the teacher is entirely safe in giving it an informal treatment, 
not holding students to formal recitations Upon it. 

5. Sections of Plane Geometry Which May Be Omitted. — 
While it is desirable that all the propositions and corollaries should 
be considered by a class, partly because of their bearing upon the 
exercises, nevertheless a teacher may omit any of the following 
without breaking the logical chain of geometry, and may assign 
some or all of these sections as exercises along with the other ex- 
amples: 

Optional Sections: 69, 77, 104-10(), 108, 123, 124, 128, 129, 
131-133, 136, 146, 171, 173, 175, 179-181, 187, 191, 195, 197, 216, 
218, 230, 234, 236-238, 241, 242, 244, 247, 279-281, 290, 300, 303- 
30(), 308, 323, 324, 328-330, 335, 336, 343, 345-347, 349, 356, 364, 
and also 367-404, if, as is sometimes the case, the mensura- 



Geometry 89 

tion of the circle is not taken. The Appendix may also be omit- 
ted. Teachers should not feel, however, that all of these sections 
are to be omitted. The list is a maximum one, and enables the 
teacher to check these sections in the book as possibilities in the 
way of omission with pupils who are not up to the average. It 
would be unfortunate, for examples, if sections 367-404 were 
omitted. 

6. Sections of Solid Geometry Which May Be Omitted. — In 
the same way a 'teacher may omit the incommensurable cases in 
Solid Geometry, may treat sections 622-634 informally, and may 
omit, if necessary, sections 565, 568, 602, 610, 616, 682, 690-692, 
707, 708, and the Appendix. 

7. Selection of Exercises. — The Wentworth-Smith Geometry 
has an unusually large number of well-graded exercises. They are 
so arranged as to encourage even the weakest student to work in- 
dependently from the very beginning. The exercises are, there- 
fore, the most important feature in any course in geometry. 
It is very desirable that they should be varied from year to year, 
so that a body of solutions may not be passed down from class to 
class. On this account the authors have provided more than any 
one class will use, and the teacher is urged to adopt some system 
of selection which will vary the assignment from year to year. 

8. Arrangement of Work. — After reading the above general 
suggestions, teachers will recognize that the variation in localities, 
in classes, and in individuals makes it impossible to arrange for 
exactly the^ same amount of work each half year. In general 
the following plan is a safe one: 

Outline 
Book I, Book II (19 theorems), pages 1-125. 
This is an average assignment, for a class must go slowly at 
the beginning. If the teacher is judicious in the selection of ex- 
ercises and in the informal treatment of limits, this ground can be 
covered in a satisfactory manner by any class. 

THIRD YEAR 

First Term (Geometry) 

Book II Complete. Books III, IV, V, pages 126-260. 

Pages 126-260, completing Plane Geometry. As already stated 

the teacher must select with care in order to cover this work in 

the time assigned; but, with the suggestions above given, this 

selection is easily made. Teachers should look upon the book as 



90 ' Uniform Course of Study 

their slave, not as their master, and above all they should not feel 
that every exercise should be taken, or that even half of them are 
for any one class. The stronger and more ambitious students 
should be encouraged to take more than the others, feeling a re- 
ward in the pleasure they get from achievement and in a judicious 
amount of commendation from the teacher, but especially in the 
power that comes to them for their later work. 

Second Term 
Solid Goometry. Books VI, VII, VIII. 

With the omissions suggested, it is not difficult to cover this 
work in the time assigned. Here, as in Plane Geometry, the 
course is sufficiently flexible for all types of pupils. Suggestions 
have been made for contraction through the omission of certain 
propositions, while the Appendix permits the course to be ex- 
panded if desired. The teacher may assign many or few exer- 
cises, as circumstances require, but a sufficient number should 
always be given to cultivate the independence of the student, 
placing him upon his own resources and giving him that con- 
fidence which it is one of the purposes of geometry to foster. 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 

This subject should be taught with daily recitations for a half 
yeaf or with recitations every other day for a full year. If daily 
recitations are sho/t and little home work is required, the book 
can be planned to cover daily recitations. The following outlines, 
bascil upon the book in use, provide for one semester and two se- 
me«>ter courses. 

The teacher should bear in mind the practical nature of this 
subject, and should constantly impress u]wn pupils the fact that 
the problems assigned are such as are likcily to come within their 
own experience in business and in the affairs of life. When the 
pupil is brought to see the reality of a problem he is impressed with 
its value to liimsolf and his interest is vastly stimulated. 

Good form should be insisted upon. Illegible work is very dis- 
couraging to the worker, sometimes making him lose his mental 
gra^p of a problem entirely. It is safe to say that 50 per cent of the 
errors in calculation made by pupils are the result of careless 
work. It is practically impossible to add correctly a column 
of tigures not neatly arranged in columns, especially when the 
figures are written badly. 



Commercial Arithmetic 91 

The pupil should be able to give the reason for every process. 
Never allow pupils to experiment until the right answer is secured. 
It is recommended that at the time of assigning each lesson the 
teacher give a few minutes of drill upon the thought of the prob- 
lems assigned. 

Business arithmetic should, under wise instruction, prove to be 
a mine of practical information to the pupil. The teacher should 
never lose an opportunity to call attention to points of informa- 
tional value and to teach the customs of business as they relate to 
the class of vocational work treated in the problems. 

The fundamental processes (addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion, and division) should be made automatically rapid and accu- 
rate at the start. This will have a very beneficial effect on the 
later work, as the attention of the pupil will be released for the 
consideration of the thought elements of the problems, without 
the distraction caused by constant attention to the mechanical 
side of the work. This principle should be applied to eveiy sub- 
ject. For instance, in studying interest, the pupil, after reason- 
ing out the formula used, should learn to apply it with facility, 
so that in solving problems involving interest on notes his prin- 
cipal attention can be devoted to the thought. 

Outline for a Year's Course 

Fundamental processes, pages 6 to 39 3 weeks 

Emphasize accuracy and speed in the four processes, 
drilling to secure automatic facility. 
Fractions, U. S. Money and Aliquot Parts, pages 40 to 75.4 weeks 
Drill thoroughly on fractions. Emphasize aliquot 
parts as the basis of a short method of multiplication. 
Denominate Numbers and Practical Measurements, 

pages 76 to 138 8 weeks 

The practical character of this work should be empha- 
sized in such a way as to arouse the enthusiasm of the 
pupils. Arithmetic is fascinating when its relation to 
life is made clear. 

Percentage, pages 139 to 176 4 weeks 

Interest and Discount, pages 177 to 210 4 weeks 

Banking, Accounts and Bills, pages 211 to 250. 5 weeks 

Partnership, Stocks and Bonds, Taxes, and Review, pages 

251 to 278 5 weeks 

No effort will be necessary on the part of the teacher 



92 Uniform Course of Study 

to arouse interest in the practical business subjects in 
the latter part of the book. This is the time to lay 
stress upon quantity of work. Make an eai'nest effort 
to get a correct solution of every problem in the book 
from every student. The average number of prob- 
lems for each day is about 15. Assign more than 15 
problems when the character of the work will permit. 
In equations and partnership settlements you should 
not assign more than two or three problems for a 
day's work. 

Outline for Half Year Course 

Fundamentals and Fractions pages 6 to 75 1 month 

It is assumed that pupils proposing to complete 
commercial arithmetic in four months are already 
well equipped in the mechanics of arithmetic. The 
teacher should bear this in mind in assigning lessons. 
The outline calls for nearly three pages per day. It 
is also assumed that these pupils will not need to 
work all the practice problems. The book contains 
ample problem material for a full year course. 
Teachers of the one semester course will not assign 
all problems. 

Denominate Numbers and Practical Measurements, 

pages 76 to 138 1^ months 

Pupils planning to complete the commercial arith- 
metic in one semester are assumed to know most 
of the tables. Nearly two pages a day are assigned. 

Percentage and Interest, pages 139 to 210 1| months 

The plan should be to hold recitations upon the prin- 
ciples involved and the mental problems, assigning 
a large number of written prol)lems to be worked 
outside of class. The teacher can cut materially the 
total number of written problems, but should use 
judgment. 

Banking, page 21 to end of book 1 month 

Equations, in this section, is a very difficult sul)- 
jcct. Some of the problems under this h(>ad may ])v 
omitted as soon as the pupils have demonstrated 
tlieir understanding of the subject. 



Commercial Arithmetic 93 

References 

The following books and magazines contain helpful sugges- 
tions on the teaching of mathematics and should be read ])y all 
teachers of that subject: 

1. The Teaching of Elementray Mathematics. D. E. Smith. 

2. The Teaching of Mathematics. J. W. A. Young. 

3. School Science and Mathematics. 

4. The Teaching of Geometry. D. E. Smith. 



SCIENCE 



One year's work must be done in one of the following sciences: 
Botany, Zoology, Physics, or Chemistry. 
(See page 14.) 



BOTANY 

One of the following four text books must be used in this 
subject: 

Practical Botany — Bergen and Caldwell. 

Text Book of Botany — Coulter. 

Plant Life and Plant Uses^Coulter. 

Practical Course in Botanyi — Andrews. 

Botany, like any other science, should be presented in the 
high school course with reference to certain general and funda- 
mental principles that can be worked out and comprehended by 
high school pupils in a high school laboratory; for no doubt 
much harm has been done in the past, both to the science and to 
the pupil by attempting to make the work correspond more near- 
ly to the elementary course in the college or university. How- 
ever, plants can and should be taught in the high school as living 
things, from the standpoint of the general principles of form, 
structure, and function, including adaptation to surroundings. 

These topics are not to be presented as abstract or isolated 
subjects, such as morphology, anatomy and physiology, but from 
a concrete basis, and as applying to some definite plant or plant 
organ accessible to the pupil. 

In the vast majority of commissioned high schools the work 
will necessarily be confined largely to the higher plants, although 
a few of the lower plants may be included in a year's course, as 
indicated in the outline following. The order in which the work 
of the several sections may be taken up is secondary. The equip- 
ment of the laboratory and the seasons of the year may determine 
very largely the sequence of topics: 

(94) 



Zoology 95 

Equipment 

The following articles should be found in every botanical lab- 
oratory : 

Good microscopes. 

Glass slides. 

Cover glasses. 

Razors. 

Camel's hair brushes (small). 

Watch glasses (flat on bottom). 

Dissecting needles (self-made by forcing sewing needles into 
slender handles). 

Fine pointed forceps. 

Chemical reagents, such as iodine, glycerine, potassic-hy- 
drate, potassic-iodine, and a few stains, such as fuchsin, cosin 
and safranin. 

ZOOLOGY 

One of the following four text books must be used in this 
subject: 

General Zoology — Linville and Kelly. 

Elements of Zoology — Davenport. 

Descriptive and Practical Zoology — Colton. 

Animal Studies — Jordan, Kellogg and Heath. 

Fall and winter, a study of comparative anatomy of a series of 
animals, beginning with the lower types. In this the organism 
as a living thing may be considered, and then its parts, noting 
the division of the body into definite organs and systems for defi- 
nite functions, and the gradual increase in complexity and effi- 
ciency of these organs and systems as the higher types are reached. 
The spring may be taken up with a more detailed study of some 
forms familiar to the teacher. In this connection frequent ex- 
cursions must be taken and especial attention paid to the variety 
of species found, the characteristics differing most in the differ- 
ent species, the peculiar surroundings in which each lives, the 
peculiarities that fit each one to its peculiar home, the habit of 
each species, the coloration of each species as compared with 
its surroundings, the comparative number of individuals of each 
species, the difference between individuals of the same species. 

Each laboratory should secure through the Congressman of the 
district the publication of the Agricultural Department on nox- 



96 Uniform Course of Study 

ioiis and Ixnieficial plants, birds, mammals and insects, and the 
reports of the Indiana State Entomologist. 

Reference Library 

1. Studies of Animal Life. Walter, Whitney & Lucas. 

2. Invertebrate Morphology. McMurrich. 

3. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. Wiedersheim. 

4. American Insects. Kellogg. 

5. Manual of Vertebrates. Jordan. 

6. Comparative Zoology. Kinglsey. 

7. Invertebrate and Vertebrate Zoology. Pratt. 

8. Animal Activities. French. 

The laboratory, for this subject, should be well lighted with 
table space of 2|xl^ feet for each student, and should contain 
at least two compound microscopes, five dissecting microscopes, 
one scalpel, one pair of scissors, one pair of forceps, one blow pipe, 
hand lens and mounter needles. 

Marine animals for class use may be obtained of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 

Alcohol may be purchased for schools at about 50 cents per 
gallon. Application should be made to some distillery to set aside 
ten gallons or more for withdrawal, duty free. A bond must be 
given for twice the amount of the tax of the alcohol to be so with- 
drawn. Printed instructions may be secured from the nearest col- 
lector of internal revenue. 

PHYSICS 

One of the following four texts must be used in this subject: 
High School Course in Physics— Gorton. 
Physics — Black and Davis. 
Elements of Physics — Hoadley. 
A First Course in Physics — Millikan and Gale. 
It is recommended that this science be omitted from the high 
school curriculum rather than intrust its presentation to a teacher 
who has not had at least one year's work in Physics, in a college 
having a good physics laboratory. If physics cannot be taught 
well, substitute for it a science that can be. It makes not so much 
difference ivhat is taught, as Jww it is taught. 

The work in physics should consist of two parts: (a) Reci- 
tation woi'k based on the text-book and illustratcHl by experi- 
ments — chiefly qualitative experiments performed by the teacher 



Physics 97 

and, in some cases, repeated by the pupil; (b) laboratory work 
in which the pupils perform the experiments and the experi- 
ments are largely quantitative. Where time and room are some- 
what limited the two kinds of work may be done in conjunc- 
tion. It is the sense of the State Board of Education that the 
course in physics should emphasize the ex'planation of natural phe- 
nomena in a manner which can be appreciated by_ high school 
pupils of average ability, and that the course should not over- 
emphasize the mathematical aspects of the subject. Do not dis- 
courage the class by much problem solving. Do not attempt to 
teach the subject without illustrative apparatus. 

List ''A" represents the minimum of equipment. Lists "B" 
and "C" should be added as soon as possible: 
List A. (For an appropriation of $100.) 

Two meter sticks. 

Adhesion disk. 

One dozen Prince Rupert drops. 

Brass ball 1| inch diameter. 

Wood ball 1^ inch diameter. 

Lead ball 1| inch diameter. 

3 English and metric balances. 

One Harvard trip balance. 

Support and pans for balance. 

1 set of brass weights, 500 gr. 

1 set of universal weights. 

1 air pump and compressor. 

1 receiver plate. 

1 bell jar, open. 

1 Boyle's law tube. 

1 barometer tube, straight, sealed. 

5 pounds of mercury. 

5 pounds assorted glass tubing. 

12 feet 3-16 inch rubber tubing. 

Cork borers. 

1 gross assorted corks. 
Hydrometer for heavy liquids. 
Hydrometer for light liquids. 

2 hydrometer jars, 12 in. by 2 in. 

Double scale thermometer, etched, 300 degrees. 

Double scale thermometer, etched, 100 degrees. 

Lodestone. 

Pair of 8-inch bar magnets. . 

7—5077 



98 Uniform Course of Study 

Horseshoe magnet, 6-inch. 

1 pound iron filings. 
Helix and ring. 
Magnetic needle, agate cap. 
Friction rod, wax. 
Friction rod, glass. 

2 friction rods, hard rubber. 
Electroscope. 

Pith balls and cord. 

Wimhurst machine, 8-inch. 

Electrophorus disk and plate. 

Proof plane. 

2 gravity cells. 

Dry cell. 

Primary and secondary coil. 

Dissectible motor. 

Decomposition of water apparatus. 

Telephone receiver. 

Telephone transmitter. 

Lecture table, demonstration galvanometer. 

Resistance box. 

Electric bell. 

Brass wire spiral spring. 

Adjustable tuning fork. 

Concave and convex mirrors. 

2 prisms, equilateral, 4-inch. 

1 mounted lens, 5-inch. 

1 set of demonstration lenses. 
Iceland spar. 

2 retort stands, 3 rings each. 

1 clamp. 

2 Bunsen burners. 
1 soldering outfit. 

1 double scale graduate 500 cc. 
1 pound double cotton covered office wire, No. 18. 
Tin cups, glasses, chemicals and other supplies, to be pur- 
chased of local dealers as needed. 

List B. (For an appropriation of $150.) 
Items of List A. 
Ball-bearing rotator. 
Centrifugal ring to fit rotator. 



Physics 99 

Balls unequal weight, on frame. 

Glass globe for rotator. 

Crovas disk. 

Siren disk. 

Color disk. 

Manometric flame apparatus. 

Specific gravity bottle, adjusted. 

Dipping needle. 

Dissectible Ley den jar. 

Fuller cell complete. 

Mechanical power apparatus. 

Seven in one apparatus. 

Stop cock, both ends for tubing. 

Air thermometer tube. 

Sympathetic forks and hammer. 

List C. (For an appropriation of $250.) 
Items of Lists A and B. 
Micrometer caliper, 1-5 cm. 
Collision balls, on frame. 
Second law of motion apparatus. 
Inclined plane. 

Harvard apparatus for latent and specific heats. 
Pair of parabolic reflectors. 
Palm glass. 

Chladni plates, large size. 
Sonometer, with weights. 
C tuning fork, mounted, without hammer. 
A tuning fork, mounted, without hammer. 
Tourmaline tongs. 
Porte lumiere. 

Optical disk, including refraction tank. 
Geissler tube. 

Tangent galvanometer, complete. 
Wheatstone bridge. 
Wireless telegraph outfit, complete, including large size in- 

induction coil. 
Balance of $250 to provide blinds for darkening the room, ap- 
paratus case, etc. 

If room is not situated so that sunlight can be reflected into it, 
omit the porte lumiere and optical disk from the above list. 



100 Uniform Course of Study 

If building is not supplied with gas, omit Bunsen burner and 
buy a gasoline blast lamp. 

If laboratory work is arranged for and the class is large, it 
will be necessary to duplicate such pieces as meter stick, bal- 
ances, weights, cells, galvanometers, resistance boxes, etc. 

Reference Books 
S. P. Thompson: "Elementary Lessons in Electricity and 

Magnetism." 
Thompson: "Light, Visible and Invisible." 
Lodge: "Pioneers of Science." 
Ganot: "Physics." 

Houston and Kennedy: "Electricity Made Easy." 
Duncan: "The New Knowledge." 
Hopkins: "Experimental Science." 
Hanchett: "Alternating Currents." 
Fournier: "The Electron Theory." 
Field: "Story of the Atlantic Telegraph." 
Ives: "Flame, Electricity and the Camera." 
Witham: "Recent Developments of Physical Science." 

CHEMISTRY 

One of the following four texts must be used in this subject: 

Inductive Chemistry — Bradbury. 
First Principles of Chemistry — Brownlee. 
An Elementary Study of Chemistry — McPherson and Hen- 
derson, 
Chemistry — Hessler and Smith. 

The study of chemistry, accompanied by individual experi- 
mental work by the pupil and demonstrations by the teacher, 
provides excellent training in observation and a useful knowl- 
edge of important natural and industrial processes, as well as in 
logical thinking. The aim of tlie course in the high school should 
be mainly to secure an understanding of fundamental principles 
and the development of the powers of observation, deduction 
and expression. The pupil should not be led to think that he is 
being trained in the ])ractice of analytical chemistry. 

The course should include the study of a suitable text, accom- 
panied by experiments done by the pui)il to show the method of 
preparation and the properties of various substances. These 
should be supplemented by demonstrations by the teacher, show- 



Physical Geography 101 

ing the quantitative relations concerned in some fundamental 
reactions. The pupil may thus become familiar by observation 
with the experimental evidence of the more important quantita- 
tive laws, and thus realize that our present theories have been de- 
duced from and are not the causes of the facts observed. 

With this in view, most of the time commonly devoted to qual- 
itative analysis may well be given to more thorough work in 
general chemistry. Analytical work in the high school, unless 
under the guidance of a very exceptional teacher, is limited in its 
instructional value and has little direct application unless sup- 
plemented by more advanced study and practice. 

Not less than one year should be given to the study even in 
its elementary outline. Three recitations and two laboratory 
periods per week is a desirable arrangement. Very little is gained 
from a course in chemistry without laboratory work. Unless a 
high school can afford a fairly good equipment for laboratory 
work chemistry would better not be taught at all. Work tables, 
with gas and water attachments and a complete supply of ma- 
terials and apparatus needed for the course should be provided. 
To put a heavy burden upon the instructor by placing him under 
the necessity of spending half of his time in devising apparatus 
out of a lamentable scarcity of material is unfair to student and in- 
structor. 

It is always best to furnish each student with as complete an 
outfit as possible, and to hold him responsible for the same. A list 
of the supplies needed should be sent to a number of firms for quo- 
tations on prices. In ordering any piece of apparatus a certain 
form in some catalogue should be designated; otherwise it will h'2 
impossible to compare prices. 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

(Text: High School Geography, Complete — Dry(>r.) 

For schools teacliing this science the following outline has 
been prepared, and it is recommended that the division of the 
work be as follows: 

FIRST HALF YEAR 
Part I 



102 Uniform Course of Study 

SECOND HALF YEAR 
Parts II and III 

Although this is known officially as a course in Physical 
Geography, that term does not fully describe it. The physical 
geography of the first half of the course is designed to serve as a 
basis for the economic and regional geography which follow. The 
relations of these different phases of geographic science are dis- 
cussed in the text on pages 5-7, which should be read. The para- 
graph and chapters, on economic relations emphasizing the rela- 
tions of physical features and conditions to human affairs should 
be given due prominence; to cover the whole ground of the text 
in one school year is possible only for a strong class using five 
periods a week for nine months. Teachers who have less time at 
command should select from the text such a course as seems best 
suited to their conditions, as the physical and economic geography 
of Parts I and II; the more important provinces of Part III; the 
supplementary chapter on Indiana. 

Part I 

Chapter I. Latitude and Longitude are as fundamental in 
geography as notation in Arithmetic. Students should be drilled 
in using them upon the globe and all sorts of maps until perfection 
is attained. 

Failure to understand the change of seasons is due largely to 
neglect of observation. The points of sunrise and sunset, the path 
of the sun in the heavens, the angles of the sun's rays and the 
length of the day at different seasons are important geographical 
facts open to common observation. 

A map is a kind of technical language which the students must 
learn to read as he learns the symbols of mathematics and chemis- 
try. No other science possesses a means of expression equal in 
effica{^y to the map. We all carry a mental map of some part of 
the earth, and the purpose of geography may be said to be, to 
make that map as extensive, clear, exact and detailed as possible. 
Most of the maps in the text are drawn on Mollweide's or Mer- 
cator's projection, and the differences between them (compare 
Figures 162-164), should be carefully noted. The problems of 
teaching locational geography, in wdiich students are often la- 
mentably deficient, may be largely solved by observing the fol- 
lowing rules: 



Physical Geography 103 

No lesson in geography which can he iUustraied by a tnap {and 
there are few which cannot) should ever he given without having 
the appropriate maps hung before the class. Use the best map 
procurable. A railroad folder is better than none. A student 
should never he permitted to talk about any feature which can he 
shown on a map, without being required to point out that feature 
on a map. 

Pictures, postcards, stereoscopic views and lantern slides are 
needed to supplement the maps and enable the student to sub- 
stitute for his mental map a mental picture of the region as it 
actually exists. 

Chapter II. This chapter cannot be adequately taught with- 
out the use of large scale, physical wall maps. The nature of the 
continental shelf and the distinction between continental plat- 
form and oceanic basin are fundamental. A drill in locating upon 
the map and naming the principal features of the continents may 
profitably occupy a week or two. 

Chapter III should be discussed with the class and taught 
without the expectation that the students will appreciate it at this 
stage. 

Chapters IV and V deal with materials, forms and processes 
which are of world-wide occurrence. For their mastery two things 
are essential: (1) field work and (2) the use of contour maps. 
There is not a township, hardly a square mile in the state which 
does not exhibit some variety of material, relief and gradation 
which will richly repay study. All that any teacher or class can 
do is to make use of whatever is accessible. To the drift covered 
portion of Indiana the ice sheet has brought a larger assortment 
of pebbles and boulders than can be studied. Clay, sand and 
gravel are always at hand. Many counties have numerous quar- 
ries and outcrops are exposed along the banks and bluffs of 
streams and in railroad and highway cuts. A small stream may be 
better for study than a large one because more of it can be seen. 
To most towns the extension of car lines has made a large terri- 
tory accessible. Let every teacher take his own field as he finds 
it and make the most of it. No first rate knowledge of relief and 
gradation can be obtained in the schoolroom only. 

The general structure and relief of the state are described and 
mapped in the supplement to the text, pp. 4-19. A physical 
map of the locality is of great assistance. Many such can now be 
obtained at little or no cost. The Department of Geology and 
Natural Resources has published soil maps of many counties 



104 Uniform Course of Study 

which inny be had on application to the State Geologist, Indianap- 
olis. The United States Department of Agriculture has pub- 
lished soil maps of a few Indiana counties. Of the Topographic 
Atlas of the United States, the following sheets of contour maps, 
wholly or partly in Indiana, have been published: Beogonia 
Springs, Bloo7nington, Boo7iville, Clay City, Danville, III., Hauh- 
siadt, Kosmusdale, Ky., Mt. Carmel, Newburg, Ky., New Har- 
7nony, Owenshoro, Ky., Petersburg, Princeton, St. Meinrad, Tell 
City, ToUeston, Velpen. 

They may be had from the U. S. Geographical Survey, Wash- 
inton, at ten cents a sheet, or six cents each for fifty or more. 
Figure 31 of the text is a part of one of the Indiana sheets and all 
the other contour maps are taken from a similar source. Such 
maps are the best representatives of relief yet designed and will 
repay the time and effort necessary to render a student proficient 
in his interpretation of them. 

Chapter VI. The general statements of this chapter should be 
made concrete and realistic by reference to all the economic uses 
made of the streams in the vicinity of the school or within the 
student's observation. 

Chapters VII and VIII. Two-thirds of Indiana is covered by 
a sheet of glacial drift, as shown in the supplement, p. 6. This 
map and pp. 10-14 indicate the glacial features which may be 
looked for. Here again field work is essential. Northern In- 
diana furnishes the best opportunities for the field study of lakes. 

Chapter IX. The study of ground water should include an 
investigation of wells in the vicinity of the school. The sink hole 
and cave region of Indiana is unrivalled for the study of subter- 
ranean drainage. The southern shore of Lake Michigan furnishes 
excellent examples of wind action in the formation of coast dunes. 

Chapter X. Soils are to be found everywhere. They may be 
roughly analyzed by shaking up, in a bottle of w^ater and letting 
it stand to settle. The proportions of clay, sand, and gravel will 
be clearly shown. 

Chapters XI and XII. It is difficult to study the sea in In- 
diana because it is unaccessiblc and fvw teachers or students know 
anything of it by experience. The most should be made of Figures 
16 and 150. The large space given to coasts, ports, and the hu- 
man aspects of the sea indicate where emphasis should be laid. 

Chapters XIII-XV. The study of the atmosj^here is made 
more difficult by the facts that it can not be seen and that many 
of its conditions can be learned only by the use of instruments. 



Physical Geography 105 

On the other hand the air is everywhere present and its conditions 
are con stantly changing. A book knowledge of it without per- 
sonal observation is of little value. People talk more and know 
less about the weather than any other topic. Yet if systematic 
and continuous observations are made it is easy to become in- 
telligent on the subject. Thermometers are necessary and a 
barometer almost as much so. Readings of temperature, pres- 
sure, wind direction and state of sky thrice a day, carried on in 
connection with a study of the daily weather map for at least six 
weeks, preferably in the winter, will give a grasp of the nature 
and effects of the cyclones and anticyclones that control Indiana 
weather. Climate is made up of generalizations of states and 
must be learned chiefly from maps and exposition of the text. 
Figures 159 and 160 are fundamental and Figure 164 ought to be 
almost memorized, because it forms the basis of many chapters 
which follow. Figjires 165-166 show the causes of the phenomena 
shown in Figures 171 and 172, of which Figure 170 is a key dia- 
gram to be burned in for ready use. The nearest weather bureau 
station will supply daily maps similar to Figures 177-180. Figure 
185 shows the results of the conditions and processes previously 
studied, and Figure 188 is a summary of all the factors of climate 
classified according to temperature and rainfall under twelve 
well marked types. Its importance may be judged from the fact 
that it forms the basis of Figures 192, 239, and 301, upon which 
Parts II and III are organized. On the whole, climate exercises 
more influence upon human affairs, than does relief, and is cor- 
respondingly important in Geography. 

Chapter XVI. Vegetation is a visible expression of soil and 
climate, and as the basis of human economy, may be called the 
master-key to geographic relations. Some knowledge of Botany 
is desirable, but not much is necessary to a fair understanding of 
the climatic control of plant distribution and human industries 
dependent upon plants as set forth in this chapter. 

Chapters XVII and XVIII. The present distribution of ani- 
mals, including man, is due so largely to conditions which existed 
so largely in the remote past that it is difficult for the gcograi)her 
to bring it into close relationship with relief, climate and V(>geta- 
tion. Fishes in the sea, birds in the air and black men in Africa 
may be accounted for, l)ut tigers in India, giraffes in Africa, blond, 
enterprising and world colonizing people around i\\v Baltic and 
Yellow Seas, stay-at-home people in China, are piohlcins which 



106 Uniform Course of Study 

can not be well discussed without the aid of the geologist and 
the ethnologist. 

Part II 

Chapters XIX and XX. The economic geography of the text 
is designed to show the intimate relationship between human life 
and the natural conditions and resources of all parts of the world. 
In the business of getting a living, plants, animals, and through 
them climate, play the most important parts. The supply of food 
and clothing is almost wholly — and of constructive materials 
largely- — dependent directly or indirectly, upon climate; hence, in 
this discussion of materials constant reference is made to the 
climatic and plant regions of Figures 188 and 19'2, enlarged copies 
of these maps should be hung before* the class and used to locate 
regions referred to. Mineral resources are but little influenced by 
climate, but their distribution is intimately related to structure 
and relief. The general principles of economic geography should 
be constantly illustrated by local examples and applied to the 
economics and industries of the home community. 

Chapter XXI. Modern industrial civilization is based upon 
an increasing use of artificial heat, light, power, and these\are ob- 
tained chiefly from mineral fuel and the energy of running water. 
The great factors are coal, iron, and water power. The origin 
and distribution of coal and iron are problems of. geology M'ather 
than of geography. Their geographical relations areichiefly on the 
human side and are there supreme. Too much- emphasis can not 
be laid upon the influence of the coal and iron fields of the Un'ited 
States, Canada, Great Britain, Germany and Belgium upon the 
industries, wealth and progress and power of those countries. 
Water power is a product of rainfall and relief and is rapidly as- 
suming a part in the human affairs second only to that of coal. 

Chapter XXII. The study of trade and transportation con- 
stitutes a department by itself called commercial geography. 
To pursue it successfully requires the widest possible knowledge of 
physical, economic, and regional geography. The brief outline 
here given may serve at least to open the door into this most com- 
plex subject. 

Part III 

Chapter XXIII. The regional geography of the text is based 
upon the national provinces of Figure 301 for reasons given in this 
chapttn-, which should be carefully studied. The national pro- 



Physical Geography 107 

vinces are almost the same as the climatic regions of Figure 188, 
but are modified somewhat by the physiographic provinces of 
Figure 57 and the plant regions of Figure 192. 

"In the study of regional geography the main purpose is to dis- 
cover how the natural environment influences or controls human 
life, and the various ways in which human life responds to the 
environment and reacts upon it. To understand such relations 
the student must know (1) the natural features and conditions of 
the region, and (2) the human activities which prevail there. 

"Natural factors, in their general relations to human life, have 
all been discussed in Parts I and II. In Part III the same factors 
and relations are studied more closely, as they are found in differ- 
ent natural environments. The division of the land into natural 
provinces is based upon the temperature belts and rainfall regions, 
as shown in Chapters XIII to XV. It is advisable to begin with a 
thorough review of Figure 164 with p. 181, and Figure 185 with 
pp. 212-218. This should be followed by a study of Figures 
188 and 192. Chapter XXIII should be discussed and explained 
by the teacher with constant reference to Figure 301 and the key, 
p. 330, until the principles are thoroughly understood. No at- 
tempt should be made to commit to memory {all at once) pp. 
335-9. The natural provinces are designed as the fundamental 
units of study and may be taken up in the order of the book, 
which places the most important first, or in the order of the simp- 
lest first, which is easier and more logical. If the latter plan is 
adopted, the class should begin with the Greenland province, pp. 
512-515. The order, then, is the American Arctic province, pp. 
511-512; the Canadian province, pp. 508-511; the Alaskan pro- 
vince, pp. 505-508; the Arizonan province, pp. 400-411 ; the Ameri- 
can Interior province, pp. 391-399; the Mexican and Caribbean 
provinces, Chap. XXXIII; the Californian and Oregon provinces, 
Chap. XXVII, then Chaps. XXV and XXIII. The remaining 
provinces may be studied in the order of the text, or the teacher 
may select such provinces as seem most important and interest- 
ing, or such as he has the best material and facilities for teach- 
ing. The teacher should not feel bound to follow the order of the 
book, if for any good reason he thinks some other order better 
adapted to the conditions and requirements of his school and class. 

"Only one rule should never be overlooked. The class must 
have a good knowledge of the natural factors of each province — 
relief, drainage, climate, and plant life^ — before taking up the 
study of the people and their activities. For success by the method 



108 Uniform Course of Study 

of natural provinces the "student must l)e well grounded in the 
characteristics of each type to be studied as given on pp. 335- 
339 and in Figure 301. To take the simplest example, the Green- 
land ])rovince. Locate the province on P'igures 301 and 302. 
Learn the structure and relief from Figures 16, 57, and 302, and 
from a good colored relief wall map. Use the index of the text 
to find various statements about Greenland. Study paragraph 
on p. 342, giving special attention to the terms "broken block 
plateau" (see p. G3), ''ice cap" (see p. 117), "fiords" (see pp. 163 
and 164), and "crystalline rocks" (see pp. 37 and 38). The cli- 
matic conditions are described on pp. 222-224 and the vegeta- 
tion on p. 242. With these facts in mind, the student is prepared 
to understand pp. 512-515. The caribou is shown in Figure 213; 
the musk ox, Figure 216; seal and walrus, Figure 210; an igloo, 
Figure 270. The topics to be emi)hasized are: ice cap, ice floe, 
sea, seal, kayak, liarpoon, igloo, lamp, dog, sledge. When more 
definite hiformation is needed, use the index of the textbook, the 
dictionary, the encyclopedia, the atlas, and the reference books." 

Chapter XXIV. Figure 382 and the text present the relief 
and structure of North America, as distinguished from climate 
and vegetation upon which the provinces of Figure 381 arc l)a6ed. 
It may be studied as a whole, or perhaps a l)etter plan is to take 
it u]) piecemeal, as it is needed in the study of the successive nat- 
ural provinces. 

Supplement o)i the (ieoiiraphy of Indiana. This should be 
studied toward the end of the course, at least not earlier than 
Chapter XXV, although it may be used at any time as a guide in 
the study of local geography. Indiana sliould be treated as es- 
sentially a portion of the Glacial Drift Plain and of the Missis- 
si])pi province, and the consequent correlations should therefore 
be kept in view. 

References 

Dryer-Price: "Student's Manual of Physical Geography." 

Salisbury: "Physiography" (advanced course). 

Powell and others: "Physiography of the United States." 

Shaler: "Aspects of the Earth." 

Geikie: "Fragments of Earth Lore." 

Dryer: "Teachers' Manual of High School Geography." 

Russell: "Lakes of North America;" "Rivers of North Amer- 
ica;" "Glaciers of North America;" "Volcanoes of North 
America." 



Commercial Geography 109 

Brigham: "Geographic Influences in American History." 
Semple: "American History and Its Geographic Conditions." 
Marsh: "The Earth as Modified by Human Action." 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY 

(Text: Commercial Geography — Adams) 
Work Essential for the Teacher 

1. Study of the literature of the subject. 

2. Determination of the purpose of instruction. 

3. Outlining the course. 

4. Accumulation of teaching material. 

(In a general way this course will touch upon the two ques- 
tions of teacher-preparation of the subject and methods of in- 
struction.) 

1. READING 

First of all, road the text with the student's attitude toward it. 
This book treats of all the peoples of the earth and sets forth their 
lands, products, and industries, as well as their connection with 
our commerce. It makes little difference whether the class-work 
is to be limited to the United States or is to cover the entire field of 
the world's trade, the teacher's general reading should be the 
same. It is impossible to teach any part of the great subject of 
commerce without a broad knowledge of the conditions under- 
lying trade throughout the world. The first reading of the text, 
therefore, should be for the general view of the subject. This 
study will stimulate and determine collateral reading, which 
should be curtailed only by the limit of the time available. A 
study of the material contained in the Statistical Abstract, pub- 
lished annually by the Treasury Department, should follow, for a 
better grasp of the immensity of the products of the United States. 
The Year-Book published by the Agriculture Department treats 
of the agricultural products of the country in comprehensive de- 
tail. The Statesman's Year-Book (American edition) is one of 
the truest compendiums in English of facts relatmg to the com- 
merce and industries of all countries. 

In addition to the study of these books, the teacher will find 
the need of a good physical geography. 



110 Uniform Course of Study 

2. DETERMINATION OF THE PURPOSE OF 
INSTRUCTION 

Whether the course is to be limited to the United States and 
her colonies, or is to include the United States and all other 
Anglo-Saxon countries, or whether the entire subject presented in 
the text is to be undertaken, it will be admitted that there must 
be such a presentation of the subject as will establish fundamental 
principles in wide application. Whatever the scope of the course, 
it should familiarize the student with — 

a. The important areas of production of all the leading arti- 
cles entering into commerce. 

b. The important areas of consumption. 

c. The means of carriage from the producer to the con- 
sumer. 

d. The basal facts relating to the larger manufacturing in- 
dustries; and, 

e. The causes that effect commercial and industrial de- 
velopment. 

It will be the teacher's problem, before beginning actual class- 
room instruction, to determine — 

1. The knowledge of the subject which is to be secured from 
pupils. 

2. The mental training which is to be aimed at. 

3. The outline of the course : the parts of the book which are 
to be omitted and those which are to be studied, with the 
time allotment for each division of the subject to be un- 
dertaken. 

Knowledge of the Subject to be secured (from pupils) — 

a. Broad, general principles which are to be illustr ated and 
enforced by every phase of the subject. 

b. Detailed knowledge of a given portion of the text to con- 
form to the time allotted to the work in the school curric- 
ulum. It is presumed that, at least, thirty-six ''periods" 
or recitations will be given to Commercial Geography, 
where it is deemed desirable to place it in the list of studies 
also, that under the most favorable conditions for a year's 
instruction not more than one hundred and eighty periods 
of classwork should be assigned. 

c. Knowledge of certain phases of commerce or geography 
selected for stress of consideration and determined by the 



Commercial Geography 111 

locality of the school. Such work would vary widely in 
different localities. 
d. Knowledge of a few special topics upon which research- 
work by able pupils should be done and the results pre- 
sented to fellow students. 

3. OUTLINING THE COURSE 

The most valuable service which this course can render to 
teachers is, perhaps — 

a. To urge upon them the necessity of some very definite plan 
of the course which they are to give. 

b. To warn them against accepting any plan, no matter by 
whom devised, which is not based upon a careful consid- 
eration of purpose and existent conditions of school work. 

Such a plan as is here set down can be rationally used only 
when the conditions which dominated its production are the 
actual conditions of the school where it is proposed to adopt the 
plan. 

For schools teaching Commercial Geography, the following 
outline of work is recommended: 

Total, 90 Lessons 

Introduction lessons— 9 

United States lessons— 36 

Other countries lessons— 30 

Scattered reviews lessons 15 

90 

Introduction: 

One lesson on basis of history of commerce. Talk by teacher 

on origin and development of commerce with the purpose of 

developing general principles. 
Five lessons based on Adams' introduction, Chapters II, III, 

and IV. Subjects: 
Effect of climate and physiography upon production. 
Effect of physiography upon location of towns. 
Two lessons on basis of Chapter V, study of transportation in 

general : 

a. Different means; comparison as to value for specific 
purposes and under certain conditions. 



112 Uniform Course of Study 

6. Routes; reasons for, value of railroads, canals, steam- 
ships, etc. 

One lesson on basis of Chapter VI, study of governmental 

work for protection and encouragement of commerce. 
United States. — In studying each commodity, pupils should be 
directed to do outside reading, using the index as a guide, in order 
to get a world-wide view of such subjects as sugar, cotton, wheat, 
etc. (The figures denote the order in which the lessons are to 
be given.) 

1 and 2, climate and natural conditions of country; 3 and 4, 
grains; 5 and 6, sugar, fruit, etc.; 7 and 8, meat and fish; 9, 
10, 11, fibers; 12 and 13, wood and its products; 14 and 15, 
petroleum and coal; 16 and 17, iron; 18, other minerals;. 
19-24, manufactures; 25-29, transportation; 30, summary; 
31 and 32, United States Colonies and Cuba; 33-36, re- 
views. 
Reviews. — After the completion of the United States, the colo- 
nies, and Cuba, as outlined above, the review should be planned 
under the following heads: 

1. Areas of production (grains; sugar; coal, iron, and other 
minerals; forests, cattle, etc.). 

2. Areas of consumption (through manufactures, use as 
food, exporting, etc.). 

3. Transportation (carriage from producer to consumer). 

4. Cause and effect of commercial development. 

In addition to these topics, the teacher will naturally divide 
the United States into its sections — i. e., the New England States, 
Middle Atlantic — for localization of products, industries, and in- 
dustrial growth. The same ground may be gone over advan- 
tageously by classifying by-products — i. e., the cotton States, the 
corn belt, etc. 

Topics for Reviews : 

1. Statistical work — comparison of export trade of ports (e. 
g.. New York, Boston, etc.). 

2. Graphic map-work^ — direction of traffic^ in four or five chief 
exports. 

3. Prospects for the Western States. 

4. Commerce (import and export trade) of New England, 
N(!w York, and Pennsylvania. 

5. Industries of the South. 



Commercial Geography 113 

Special Topics: 

1. The business of a railroad center. 

2. The ocean trade (of the city of Boston or other i)orts). 

3. The business of a distributing center. 

Other Countries. — Time scheme (the figure give the numbc. of 
lessons): 2, Canada and Newfoundland; 3, Great Britain and 
Ireland; 3, Germany; 3, France; 2, Belgium and the Netherlands; 
2, Russia in Europe and Asia; 2, Austria, Hungary, and Italy; 
2, India; 1, China; 2, Japan; 2, Australia; 2, Africa; 2, Central 
America and Mexico; 2, South America. Total, 30 lessons. 

Revieios. — Suggested topics (special): Marketing of petrol- 
eum; moving of grain; estimating cost in labor and investment of 
capital of one meal; United States agricultural machinery in for- 
eign markets; corn; wheat; iron; cotton; the world's beverages, 
etc.; English trade — statistical and descriptive; German com- 
petition in Europe's markets. 

Some of the above, as wheat, or iron, can be done by the class 
as a whole, others can profitably be used as special topics assigned 
to selected individuals. 

The school library should be made as full and as serviceable 
under the head of Commercial Geography as under Literature or 
History. Whether this result can be secured is not entirely a 
question of school funds, though a liberal allowance of money 
can be most advantageously expended. Through the energy of 
the teacher, much of the literature of this subject can be collected 
without cost. Many Government publications are made with the 
sole idea of broadening and bettering pubhc information; heads of 
bureaus are given discretion to issue their publications to schools 
and colleges, upon application. 

The reports of chambers of commerce, commercial exchanges, 
and of many large corporations may be obtained as easily as 
Government documents. 

A number of school geographies, both physical and political, 
and a reUable atlas should be placed in the class-room for the use 
of students. 

Maps. — Map of the world, showing cal)le and steamship 
routes. (Navy Department, Hydrographic Office.) 

Cuba. 

Philippines. 

China and Japan, 

East Indies. 

8—5077 



114 Uniform Course of Study 

Europe. 

United States, North America. 

A list of the maps of the United States Coast Survey may be 
procured from the department at Washington. 

Many raih'oad maps, though crude and inaccurate, are illum- 
inating to the study of transportation. "Folders" of any railroad 
in this country are easily obtainable. The big steamship com- 
panies print a great deal of information which may be used to 
advantage. 

Newspapers and Magazines.- — The magazines contain many 
articles which treat of American commerce. These, torn from the 
magazine and bound by themselves in stout paper covers, will 
soon provide a valuable pamphlet library. 

Clippings on commercial subjects — e. g.. Pacific Cable, Isth- 
mian Canal, etc. — should be requested from all students; this will 
insure careful daily reading upon current trade topics. Few of 
these clippings are desirable for general class use. As a conse- 
quence they should be filed in large envelopes; once in a few weeks 
they should be sorted by competent students, or b}' the in- 
structor, and those of more than ephemeral value classified and 
pasted into a large scrap-book. Of course, the use of a good filing 
and index system is more desirable than the suggested envelopes 
and scrap-books. 

Illustrations. — It should be the teacher's aim to collect within 
a few years a large number of valuable illustrations relevant to 
the peoples and customs of all nations of the earth. It will not be 
difficult to find "process" pictures of every sort of product, all 
kinds of manufactures, and of the various means of transpora- 
tion; the date palm of the desert, the manufacture of beet sugar, 
packing tea in China, the ocean greyhound, etc. The illustrations 
of Adams's Commercial Geography are an example of the ex- 
cellent work which is everywhere to be found. A filing cabinet 
can be improvised with a little ingenuity. (-iS-R-S, Library 
Bureau.) 

If the school owns a lantern, slides can be made by copying 
many of the best of these illustrations. Slides may also be pur- 
chased or rented to illustrate almost any subject. Lectures by 
business men, travelers, or teachers, illustrated by the lantern, 
upon such a subject as sugar, for example, will create a lively in- 
terest ill geography, commerce and politics. 



PRE-VOCATIONAL WORK 

The law requires that Elementary Agriculture, Elementary 
Domestic Science and Elementary Industrial Arts shall be taught 
in the grades of all town, township and city schools as a part of 
their regular courses of instruction, and further provides that the 
study of these subjects be continued in all city, town and township 
high schools, as the State Board of Education may direct. Every 
teacher required to teach any of these practical arts subjects 
should study carefully, and often, the following suggestions and 
directions for this pre-vocational work. 

A. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR WORK IN PRAC- 
TICAL ARTS SUBJECTS 

The minimum requirements for the practical arts work are 
fixed by the law and the State Board of Education and are as 
follows: 

Requirements for Grades in Rural Town and City Schools. All 
town schools must teach Agriculture and Industrial Arts to the 
boys of the 7th and 8th grades, and Domestic Science to the girls 
of the same grades. All city schools must teach Industrial Arts 
to the boys of the 7th and 8th grades and Domestic Science to the 
girls of these grades. Agriculture must be taught in the rural or 
district schools to the 7th and 8th grade boys, and Domestic 
Science to the 7th and 8th grade girls. Industrial Arts is not re- 
quired in the rural schools. 

The minimum amount of time to be devoted to each of these 
practical arts subjects in the grades has not been increased this 
year and is fixed by the State Board of Education, at two regular 
recitation periods per week. 

Requirements for the High Schools. All Commissioned and cer- 
tified high schools must provide at least one full year's work in 
Domestic Science for the girls and a full year's work either in 
Agriculture or Industrial Arts for the boys. These practical 
arts subjects should be placed on the same plane as the work in 
other High School subjects. They should be elective for all first 
year students, and no credit towards graduation will be allowed 
by the State Board of Education unless a full year's work has 
been done in the subject taken. 

Qualifications of Teachers. All teachers required to teach one 
or more of the practical arts subjects must hold a valid license in 

(115) 



IIG Uniform Course of Study 

the subject or sul)jeets they teach and present such hcensc or 
special certificate to their Trustee or School Board when they sign 
their contracts to teach. 

B. AIM AND SCOPE OF THE PRE-VOCATIONAL WORK 

It has long been argued by students of education and cl ild 
nature, that children can l)est be educated through then- own 
activity and experience; that children can find themselves better 
through the avenues of metals, clay and wood construction than 
through the avenue of Iwoks. It has also been pointed out how a 
study of Nature, a study of Agriculture, Drawing, Manual Train- 
ing and the Household Arts helps to overcome the isolation which 
so often exists between school and life; how all forms of hand and 
constructive work motivates the other school work; how such 
work is needed to insure the natural and healthy growth and de- 
velopment of all children, and how, without it, normal habits of 
healthful activity can not be accjuired. But aside from these 
educational considerations, it may be shown that instruction and 
jiractice in these practical arts subjects is absolutely essential 
for laying the right sort of a foundation for all forms of productive 
and creative work. There is, therefore, a double reason for the 
emphasis put upon this work. 

We, in Indiana, have taken upon ourselves the task of pro- 
viding vocational instruction for all of our people. We are com- 
ing to feel that the real glory and true worth of life is not to the 
spender, l)ut to the producer; that education should prepare us 
not merely to understand and appreciate the work and achieve- 
ments of other men and times, but that it should fit us to become 
skilled and wilhng producers in some important and useful field 
of human endeavor. We have come to feel that it takes a skilled 
woi'kcr or producer to make a good citizen of the state, and that 
every citizen should be prepared by education and training to do 
some useful form of work. We beheve that until this has been 
achieved the individual will not bo able to make his own life of 
value to himself, or of service and worth to society. 

There are at least three steps in the process of i)reparing our 
present and future citizens for creative and productive work in 
every field : 

1. A period of gxsneral education is necessary, a period when 
the foundations for all occupations and work are laid. All occu- 
pations or callings in life recjuirc a certain amount of general edu- 



Aim and Scope of Pre- Vocational Work 117 

cation before efficient preparation for that specific occupation can 
profitably begin. The amount of such genei'al prei)aration differs 
widely for the various professions or callings in life. 

2. There must also be a pre-vocational period of training 
when the pupils should be finding themselves vocationally and 
trying themselves out to determine which calling in life they 
should follow and prepare for. During this period pupils should 
be given the kind of instruction and guidance which would help 
them to make a wiser choice of their life work and enable them to 
try themselves out, as it were, in several fundamental lines of 
work to determine in wdiich line they are most interested, and for 
which they have the most talent or capacity. They should also 
pursue, during this period, those studies which would be genera lly 
helpful and which would give the necessary foundations for the 
work they expect to do later. 

3. There must be in the third place a period for vocational 
training proper, when the dominant aim should ])e to prepare di- 
rectly for the particular occupation they expect to follow as their 
life work. 

It is the opinion of the State Department that vocational 
training which aims to prepare directly for a specific occupation or 
calling in life can not be given with economy or profit unless the 
right sort of foundation for this training has been laid. Begin- 
ning with the kindergarten and extending through the elementary 
and pre-vocational periods there should be well co-ordinated hand 
and industrial work which Avould build up, in connection with the 
regular work of the school, such ideals of service, such a knowl- 
edge about and interest in the fundamental occupations of life, 
such habits of thinking and work, such powers of observation 
and control of all parts of the body as are a necessary prere- 
quisite for all kinds of work. 

The practical arts work in the regular school is, therefore, a 
very necessary and important part of our State Program for Vo- 
cational Education. It is the necessary pr(diminary step to effi- 
cient vocational training as such, a step that can not be omitted 
and upon whose successful solution very largely depends the suc- 
cess of all future vocational work. 

Three lines of practical arts work have been provided for by 
our law. Industrial Arts, Domestic Science and Agriculture. 
These will be treated in their order below : 



118 Uniform Course of Study 

C. COURSE OF STUDY IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS 

A somewhat careful study of the Industrial Arts work now 
being done in the schools of the state reveals the fact that the in- 
struction given in most of the schools consists merely of following 
a few set exercises in woodworking, which give pupils no help 
whatever for understanding present day industrial conditions 
and processes, and little help or skill for working in an efTective 
way even in this occupation or trade. There are too few teachers 
employed for this work. The teachers employed are not properly 
trained. There is a marked confusion and conflict of purposes and 
aims, often inadequate equipment and accommodation, insufficient 
time, and little appreciation on the part of the school authorities 
as to the real value or place, in the school curriculum, of the In- 
dustrial Arts work. 

In the hght of these facts it seems desirable that we define 
for ourselves as clearly and definitely as we can just what we be- 
lieve should be accomplished by means of the Industrial Arts 
work, which the law requires us to teach as a part of the regular 
course of instruction in the public schools of the state, or adopt, as 
it were, a platform upon which we propose to stand in the con- 
du ct of this work. This would be desirable even though we should 
find after we have worked at the problem for a while that our plat- 
form ought to be changed in certain respects. 

1. Aim of Instruction in Industrial Arts 

The aim of the instruction in Industrial Arts, as in all other 
subjects or fields of educational work, should be determined not by 
the nature or character of the work to be done, but by the nature 
and needs of the students taking the work. In most of our educa- 
tional work, in the past, we have been trying to fit boys and girls 
into set schemes of education instead of fitting our educational 
system to the nature and needs of our students. In teaching a par- 
ticular subject, for example, we have tried to fit our students into 
a logically arranged scheme for developing that subject; instead of 
fitting the subject to the nature and needs of the individual stu- 
dents who are to do the learning. 

Keeping in mind, therefore, the fact that the aim of the in- 
struction in the Industrial Arts should be determined by the 
nature and needs of the students taking the work, we may profit- 
ably distinguish the following four stages or periods for the In- 



Industrial Arts 119 

dustrial Arts work. (1) The kindergarten period, embracing 
whatever Industrial Arts instruction is given during the first six 
years of a child's Hfe. (2) The elementary period, extending 
normally from six to about twelve and embracing the instruc- 
tion given in the first six years of the public school course. (3) 
The pre-vocational period, extending from about twelve to six- 
teen, and embracing normally the work of the last two years of the 
elementary and the first two years of the high school. (4) The 
vocational period proper, extending normally from sixteen to 
eighteen or thirty when all instruction should be controlled by a 
definite vocational aim and when specific training in preparation 
for a particular occupation or profession is given. 

It is, of course, clear that the limits of these several stages can 
not be definitely fixed. For some the pre-vocational period will be 
short and will consist merely of a brief finding and try-out period, 
followed at fourteen or sixteen by special vocational instruction, 
designed to prepare for a particular occupation or trade. Where 
such special vocational and pre-vocational instruction is not 
given the boy will merely drift into some line of work without any 
guidance or special preparation for the work he undertakes. For 
many this finding and try-out period will be followed by a study 
of certain subjects which give a broad and necessary foundation 
for the professional or technical work that is later to be taken up 
when the preparation for a particular occupation begins. In 
such cases the vocational work in the higher technical and pro- 
fessional school will not begin until these pre-vocational or pro- 
fessional preparatory courses have been finished. 

We are at present concerned only with the aims and methods 
of the Industrial Arts work to be done in this early try-out period 
in the regular schools — the Industrial Arts work in the seventh 
and eighth grades and the first two years of the high school- — 
which we have called the pre-vocational period to distinguish it 
from the period which naturally follows where all the instruction 
should be controlled by a definite vocational aim. Only such 
statements will be made about the character and aim of the work 
in the elementary and vocational periods as may be necessary to 
make clear the work to be done in the pre-vocational period under 
consideration, or to make clear the relation of the instruction 
given during this period to what naturally precedes and should 
follow. 



120 Uniform Course of Study 

a. INDUSTRIAL ARTS WORK IN THE ELEMENTARY 

PERIOD 

(1) Aim of Instruction. The Industrial Arts work for the ele- 
mentary period should be essentially informational and develop- 
mental in character, appealing directly to the instincts and inter- 
ests of the pupils. It should give to the child, through observa- 
tion and contact with the things found in his environment, the 
greatest possible amount of information about these things. 
The method used should be largely constructive, and the project 
work undertaken should be so planned and carried on that it 
would develop the child's senses and powers of observation as 
well as the more fundamental forms of mental and muscular co- 
ordination so essential for efficiency in all forms of future work. 
The hand work given should be so planned and conducted that it 
would reduce, so far as possible, the awkwardness to which the 
<']iil(l is by nature heir and develop a large variety of mental and 
physical forms of control which would later form the necessary 
basis for success in any field of work. 

Special attention should also be given in this period to de- 
veloping the artistic sense or taste of the pupil. Mere busy work 
should be avoided. Everything made 1)y the child should serve 
some useful purpose or end, at least for him. True appreciation 
for the beautiful, the appropriate and the us(>ful should be de- 
veloped by m(>ans of the constructive work. The instruction for 
this period should be made an integral part of the regular school 
course and should be given by the regular teachers, under the 
direction of an expert in general and Industrial education. The 
work should be the same for all ]nipils regardless of future oc- 
cu]:)ation or sex, l)ecause the interests and activities of children 
during this period are fundamental and racial in character. 

The Industrial Arts work for this jieriod is, therefore, not voca- 
tional nor even pre-vocational in any real sense. It is chiefly edu- 
cational and can be made the greatest educational instrument in 
the entire curriculum if only the work is wisely planned and skill- 
fully executed. No detailed State Course of Study for this period 
has as yet been outlined by the State Board of Education, and no 
specific requirements for this period have been made. 

b. INDUSTRIAL ARTS WORK IN THE PRE-VOCATIONAL 

PERIOD 

(1) Aim of Work. The elementary pcu'iod just described is 
followed by a stage where chief attention should be given, in the 



Industrial Arts 121 

Indu.strial Arts work, to a study of the fuiulanuuital ()("('ui)ations 
and industries pursued by present day society. During this period 
a true appreciation and understanding of the more important in- 
dustries used by present day society to make a living should be 
gained by observation and actual experience with one or more 
fundamental lines of work. The student should get by ol)serva- 
tion and experience in a school shop first hand knowledge of the 
industries studied. They should be given experiences which are 
really typical of actual present daj^ conditions and methods of 
work in a few selected fields. This information and participa- 
tion would give them not only the kind of knowledge and ap- 
preciation concerning these industries that every intelligent citizen 
should have, but it would aid them greatly in making a wiser 
choice of their life occupation. 

The aim of the Industrial Arts work for this pre-vocational 
period is, therefore, two-fold: (1) It should give the pupil a 
true understanding of and appreciation for the more funda- 
mental and important industrial activities represented in his own 
community and those upon which the maintenance and welfare 
of his country and state depend. These industrial activities have 
come to play such an important role in modern civilization that 
an individual can scarcely be considered well educated or expected 
intelligently to discharge his duties as a citizen unless he has a 
sympathetic understanding of the fundamental industrial ac- 
tivities of present day society. (2) The instruction should, in 
the second place, assist the pupil in determining his vocational 
aim or bent, by providing a series of typical experiences in a few 
fundamental lines of work, whereby he could try himself out, as it 
were, or test his interest in and fitness for the lines of work taken 
up in the school shop. The instruction in this period should be 
such as to enable the teacher and pupil to make a wiser choice of 
an occupation for which to prepare specifically in the next stage 
of his educational career. 

It is for this period that a definite course of study in the 
Practical Arts subjects has been made and certain minimum re- 
quirements set. 

{2) Scope of the Work. In the organization of the Industrial 
Arts work for this pre-vocational, or finding and try-out period, 
chief emphasis should be laid on the study of the industries of the 
local community and those Avhich may be taken up in the school 
shop. Special attention should be given to those activities (wood- 
working, printing, joinery, bookkeeping, stenography, electricity, 



122 Uniform Course of Study 

cement work, elementary iron ■work and the rest) which can be 
carried on in the school shop somewhat as these operations take 
place in the industrial world. Cliief emphasis is generally laid on 
woodwork and other conventional forms of manual training, irre- 
spective of whether these represent one of the industries of the 
community or not. This should r>ot be. For the observation or 
general study those industries should be selected which are 
represented in the school community, or which are fundamental 
for the State and Nation. In th^ practice or shop work those 
lines should be selected which c^n be introduced into the school 
to the best advantage and the work made real and practical. 
In a Township High School, for example, a mixed course in wood- 
working, blacksmithing and cement instruction might most pro- 
fitably be introduced. In a city a course in elementary woodwork- 
ing, prmting or some of the other basic arts should be introduced. 
Too many lines of work should not be undertaken, as a mere 
smattering of several lines of shop work will be less valuable than 
one or two lines well done. The two ends to be attained in this 
period should be kept clearly in mind and the work planned and 
conducted in a manner that would attain the desired results in 
the most efficient and economic way. 

{,-i) Methods )f Studij 

(a) The Pamcipation or Shop Method. To get the desired 
results the method of study should be by actual participation in 
the industry studied. The pupi! should get actual experiences in 
the fields of work taken up. He must take part in the work it- 
self fully to understand and appreciate the industry studied. 
The experience he gexs must be true to that industry, if it is to have 
any vocational guidance or permanent value for him, which 
means that so far a» a boy come;-; in contact with, say, the wood- 
working industry, it must be along real lines. He must be in- 
troduced, so far as possible to the processes of woodworking as 
they are actually carried on in this industry today and only such 
industries should be selec^.ed for shop work as may be studied in 
this way and enough time devoted to the subjects taken up to 
enable the pupil to profit by the instruction given. 

(6) The Observation Method. There is, however, another 
group of industries, some of which may be represented in the 
school community, whien can not be duplicated or studied to ad- 
vantage in a school shop. They must be studied, if at all, by the 



Work in the Vocational Period 123 

observation method, because no active participation in the work 
itself is possible. Railroad and steam engineering, paper making, 
the more advanced phases of the texile industry, the manufac- 
ture of automobiles and boots and shoes and many others belong 
in this group. For a study of this group of industries pupils 
should be taken to the mills, the factory or the railroad yards for 
first hand observation and information. Actual participation is 
impossible. 

(c) The Academic Method. Many industries, some of which 
are important, can not be studied either by the participation or 
observation method. Information concerning them must be 
gotten, if at all, from moving pictures, illustrations, lectures and 
the reading of books. This group would include for Indiana boys 
and girls such industries as navigation, the fishing industry of 
New England, cattle raising, as it is carried on in the northwest 
and southwest. 

Most reliable information about the industries can, of course, 
be obtained by the first and second methods and those industries 
should be selected for intensive study, which may be studied ei her 
by the shop or observation method, but many of the others are 
important and should not be ignored during this pre-vocational 
period. 

c. WORK IN THE VOCATIONAL PERIOD PROPER 

(1) Aim of the Work. The pre-vocational or finding period 
is in turn followed by a stage where the instruction should be con- 
trolled and the selection of the subjects for study guided by a 
definite vocational purpose or aim. During this period the con- 
trolling purpose of the instruction should be to fit for a particular 
occupation or calling in life. In the case of most students a period 
of specific vocational instruction in preparation for a particular 
occupation or trade, in a vocational department or school, should 
begin as soon as the pre-vocational or finding and try-out stage 
has been past. In the case of those who desire to prepare for the 
skilled trades on the highest plane and for those who wish to pre- 
pare for the so-called higher professions, this pre-vocational or 
finding stage should be followed by a period of instruction where 
chief attention would be given to laying a necessary or helpful 
basis for the special vocational instruction which comes later on 
in the professional school. But in either case, after a decision has 
been made in the finding or try-out period described above, all 



124 Uniform Course of Study 

the insiruclioii ii;iven should function hi a definitely recognized 
way. Some will begin at once to tlo real vocational work in a 
vocational department or school. Those who expect to prepare 
for the so-called higher professions and for positions of leader- 
ship in the higher technical, industrial and commercial fields, 
will l)egin to take a course which prepares directly for a higher 
technical, commercial or industrial school. They will not begin 
their special vocational course until such a selected high school 
or college course has been completed, but in any event the course 
should be selected with the end to be attained in view, so that the 
vocational or life motive may lend zest, interest and definiteness 
to the work. A mere generalized course, which does not lead any- 
where in particular is wasteful, to say the least. 

(2) Scope of Work. Nothing will here be said about the scope 
and methods of instruction for the vocational period proper ex- 
cept to say that the work is as extensive and varied as the voca- 
tional needs of our people. All classes of people should somehow be 
reached by vocational instruction, and until a complete scheme 
of vocational training becomes operative for our young people we 
must also provide for those who are now at work, but who have 
had no special ti-aining in preparation for their present wage 
earning pursuits. The specific groups of people that must be 
taken care of in a complete state scheme for vocational educa- 
tion have elsewhere been pointed out. See First Annual Report 
on Vocational Work in Indiana, Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, Indianapolis, December 1, 1914, pp. 197-199. 

2. Necessary Teachers, Rooms and Equipment for In- 
dustrial Arts Work in Town, Township and City 

Schools 

a. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR TOWN AND CITY 

SCHOOLS 

(/) Tcdchcrs. There must he a teacher specially equipped 
by training and ('xperi(>n('e to do th(> ty])e of Industrial Arts work 
undertaken in the school. It is better to have a well-trained 
teacher for the work and little equipment, than much equip- 
ment and an ideal shop but no t(>a('h(M' (lualified to do the work. 
The first consideration siiould be to secure a well trained teacher. 
Two or more schools may combine to employ a competent teacher 
for th(> Industrial Arts v^oi'k if the teacher can i)rofitably serve 



Minimum Requirements for Town and City Schools 125 

more than one scliool. Such teachers shoukl spend their sum- 
mers working in the industry represented in the school shop or in 
advanced study of industrial education. 

(2) Shop and Rooms. There should be a room or rooms, 
suitably equipped to do effective shop work in at least one of the 
following subjects: Woodworking, Freehand and Mechanical 
Drawing, Printing, Electrical work. Clay and Cement work or a 
mixed course in Wood, Iron (Blacksmithing) and Cement. 

The shop for the Industrial Arts work need not necessarily 
be located in the school building. A suitable building convenient 
to the school may be rented or leased for the shop work. Such a 
shop can often be more economically and efficiently equipped 
than any room that could be provided in the school building. 

(5) Type of work to he Done. Chief attention must be given 
to the shop work which should be so conducted that it will lead 
directly and without friction or loss of motion on the part of the 
learner to the more advanced practical courses in that field, as 
provided m a vocational school. 

Some study should also be made of the industries of the local 
community by excursions, conferences with business and profes- 
sional men, selected readings and reports. Some study should also 
be made of the more fundamental industries not represented in 
the school community, by the use of lantern slides, assigned read- 
ings, lectures, conversations and the study of books. This is to 
give students an intelligent understanding of the conditions and 
facts of present day industries and to acquaint them with the op- 
portunities offered to workers in these various occupations. Ex- 
perts from the various industries should occasionally be secured 
to give talks to the boys on their occupation or industry. 

(4) Work in City Schools. In city schools the requirements 
are similar to those for town and township schools, except that 
more than one line of shop work should be arranged for. In a city 
high school the pupils should be given an opportunity to do two, 
three, or even four years' work in Industrial Arts subjects. 

{o) Shop- Eqiiiptncnt. The total cost for e(iuipi)ing a wood- 
working shop for 10 pupils need not exceed $150.00. For a mixed 
course in Wood, Iron and Cement suitable equipment would cost 
about !!i!l8l.50. The first consideration, however, should be to 
secure a competent teac^her. The course should then be developed 
and e(iuipm(>nt added as rapidly as local needs and financial con- 
ditions will permit. For official lists of equipment and suggestions 



126 Uniform Course of Study 

for fitting up a school shop for Industrial Arts work in rural and 
commissioned schools, see Special Bulletin, Department of Public 
Instruction, Vocational Series No. 12. For a mixed shop course in 
Woodworking, Elementary Blacksmithing and Cement Con- 
struction, the equipment in list A and B would be needed. If 
Woodworking is taken up alone the equipment in list A or C 
should be purchased. 

{6) Library Equipment. The Library should contain enough 
journals and books to enable the boys to study the biographies of 
successful workers in the more fundamental occupations and in- 
dustries. Also a few farm and industrial magazines and books 
along the lines of industrial work taken up in the school. See 
Special Bulletin Vocational Series No. 12. Additional helps and 
suggestions will be given whenever possible upon application to 
the Vocational Division, Department of Public Instruction, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

3. Course of Study in Industrial Arts for the High School 

As already pointed out two things should be accomplished by 
a study of the Industrial Arts work given during the pre-voca- 
tional period. (1) It should give young people a better appre- 
ciation of the local industries and the more important lines of 
work followed by present day society. (2) It should give by ac- 
tual shop work a direct first hand knowledge of one or more of 
these lines of work. 

a. A STUDY OF LOCAL AND BASIC INDUSTRIES 

Much might be done in these and the preceding grades by way 
of acquainting children Avith the facts pertaining to our complex 
industrial and economic life, facts which would have a substantial 
bearing on their general education and on any particular voca- 
tion for which they might later wish to prepare. An informational 
study of the basic industries might be made by starting with the 
most primitive methods and processes of doing the work and end- 
ing with present day methods and processes, or by starting with 
the industries to be found in the community and then briefly 
tracing their historic development. Lectures might be given by 
the teacher or by experts in the various fields when such can be 
secured. Books and pamphlets might be collected showing the 
evolution and present state of development of the leading in- 
dustries and of important tools. In most cases materials may be 



Shop or Constructive Work 127 

collected from leading manufacturers that will show both their 
present state of development and their evolutional history. 

The aim of this Informational Study should be: (1) To de- 
velop the right sort of industrial intelligence concerning the more 
fundamental industries. (2) To stimulate and cultivate a de- 
sire in the minds of the pupils for a thorough study of the partic- 
ular occupation or industry they may take up as their life work. 
(3) To help pupils to choose more wisely and intelligently their 
calling in life. 

Some schools may find it desirable or necessary to emphasize 
this phase of the Industrial Arts work until suitable equipment 
for shop work can be provided. No school should neglect it, but 
it should be remembered that the best way to develop real in- 
dustrial intelligence is by direct participation in the work itself 
on a real shop basis. 

During this pre-vocational period enough study of the more 
fundamental and important Indiana industries should be made to 
make clear to our young people the preparation and training that 
is needed for success in these fields of work the difficulties and 
dangers that are encountered in each line of work, the rewards in 
salary or wages, of industry and skill in each, etc. These facts 
for all lines of work should be determined and studied by our 
young people. All should be made to feel the importance of mak- 
ing the right selection of a life career; all should be made to see 
the value of preparing themselves throughly for their life occupa- 
tion, and made to see that this is the only way of making a per- 
sonal success in life. All should be impressed with the oppor- 
tunity for service which such a mastery of a useful occupation or 
trade gives them, and be made to see that it is only through the 
doing of such useful work that they are able to help themselves or 
to be of service to society and the state. 

b. SHOP OR CONSTRUCTIVE WORK 

Many lines of constructive work might be arranged for, but 
a course in Elementary Wood Work, Printing, Electricity, Ele- 
mentary Blacksmithing or Cement construction would be found 
the most profitable line to take up. But whatever line is taken up 
in the shop it should be correlated with freehand and mechanical 
drawing and, wherever possible, with constructive design. 

It is clear that a detailed course of study in each of these 
lines could not be inserted. It is also clear that all schools would 



128 Uniform Course of Study 

not find it profitable to follow the same line of shop work, oi- 
same cours(> of study. For further and more d etailed .suggestions 
for a course of study in industrial arts, suitable for this pre- 
vocational p(>riod, see special l)ulletin, Department of Public In- 
•struction, Vocational series No. 12, pages 23-31. 

d. DOMESTIC SCIENCE 

Tlu^ law of Indiana requires the teaching of Domestic Science 
in all rui'al, town, and city high schools and authoi'izes the 
State Board of Education to fix the minimum time requiixunent, 
for this work. 

In accordance with such provision, a period of one school 
year has been fixed by the State Board of Education as the mini- 
mum time requirement, with five regular periods per week given 
to Domestic Science. 

These five periods per week should be used as laboratory 
periods for demonstration and actual practice, and recitation 
periods, for the discussion of the theory and underlying principles 
of the work. There should be at least three laboratory periods 
per week, not less than eighty minutes each in length (the mini- 
mum time fixed by the State Board of Education for laboratory 
periods in Commissioned and Certified high schools), and ninety 
minutes in length would be better. 

By such an arrangement, Domestic Science is put on the same 
basis as any other high school subject and one unit or two credits 
allowed for the work. 

This requirement may be met in one year by the five labora- 
tory and recitation periods per week or may be extended over 
two years, a portion of the requirement being met the first year 
and the remainder the second year but no credit is allowed for the 
work until the full minimum requirem<mt of one year of work with 
five periods per week has been met. 

The provision for extending the woi'k through two years was 
made soon after the enactment of the vocational law, in oixler to 
accommodate small high schools in the state that could not meet 
the requirements in the one year, because of limited equipment 
and teaching force. 

The purpose of Domestic Science in the public schools is to 
educate girls in the essentials of home-making. The need of com- 
petent mothers and liouse wives is seen in many homes, especially 
those where young women initrained in the affairs of the house- 



Domestic Science 120 

hold have passed directly from the wage earning field to assume 
the duties of housewife and mother. Since many girls who enter 
the high school drop out at the close of the Freshman year, it is 
strongly recommended that all high schools meeting only the 
minimum time requirement for Domestic Science provide (1) 
For meeting this requirement in one year by the five periods 
per week. (2) For placing this course in the Freshman Year. 
(3) For requiring, wherever possible, that this course be taken by . 
all Freshman girls. Points (2) and (3) are recommended for all 
high schools, rural, town and city, no matter what the length of 
course. 

Only one yiear of work has been outlined in the present State 
Course of Study, but wherever schools can provide for more work 
than this minimum time requirement and desire assistance in 
outlining such work, the State Department will gladly furnish on 
request outlines and other aids through the Home Economics 
Department of the Vocational Division. 

In order to afford some instruction in all lines to girls who do 
not continue m school longer than the Freshman Year, and to 
those in such high schools as can yet pursue only the minimum re- 
quirements of the State Board for this work, the Course has been 
made to include work in Sewing and Textiles, Foods and Cook- 
ery, and Household Management. 

By such an arrangement the good results coming from more 
continuous work in one line are lost but it is believed the benefits 
gained by such an arrangement for the one year of work fully com- 
pensate for this. 

Wherever it is still impossible because of limited equip- 
ment and teaching force for the high school to complete the mini- 
mum requirements in one year, and the course is extended over 
two years it is recommended that in each year two laboratory 
periods (not less than eighty minutes each) and one recitation 
period (not less than forty minutes) be given to the work each 
week. 

This will total in the two years enough additional work to 
allow one and one-fith units of credit in Domestic Science. 

This course has been outlined on the supposition that the pres- 
ent Course for the 7th and 8th grades has been carried out, and an 
attempt has been made to avoid duplicating the work of those 
grades. 

In higii schools where the Course of Study in Domestic 
Sciejice extends beyond the Sophomore Year, a splendid oppor- 

9—5077 



130 Uniform Course of Study 

tunity •» offered to vitalize the soicnce work for girls through its 
application to the work of the household. Botany, Zoology, 
Physiology and Hygiene are closely allied to the problems of 
food, sanitation, and health in the home. Chemistry has a close 
relation to foods, textiles and the care of household equipment. 
While the principles of Physics in their application to the House- 
hold are seen in the mechanical contrivances for saving time and 
energy, and in systems of heating, lighting and ventilating. 

These sciences are basic in a proper study of Home Economics, 
and when girls elect them in the high school an effort should be 
made to correlate them closely with the Home Economics work. 

The teacher should seek to identify herself with all local or- 
ganizations that can be utilized in promoting this work. If none 
exist, she should aid in forming Home Economics Clubs. The 
girls in the school ma}^ be organized into Clubs for work on Christ- 
mas articles, on art'cles for orphans' homes, hospitals, etc., or 
even to supplement the school work, 

FRESHMAN YEAR 

First Term 
Sewing and Textiles 

A woman of maturity said recently: "I should like to have 
known, before I was twenty-one years of age, that it is a great 
commercial asset to be neatly, simply, and tastefully dressed." 

The problem of clothing is a big one for the individual and 
the household. 

From the standpoint of income, important questions are: 

(1) How much of my income can I properly spend on clothes? 

(2) How can I best expend that portion to secure the greatest 
benefit? (3) How closely shall I adhere to the latest fad or style 
and how closely to a standard just past? 

Young girls entering the high school are beginning to think 
more of clothes than before. They are older, they have become a 
part of a much more extensive group of young people, participate 
more larg(^ly in social functions, and survey themselves and one 
another more critically than ever before. 

The teacher of Sewing in the high school has a rare oppor- 
tunity to use her influence in shaping the attitude of the girls 
toward dress and helping them to form the good taste that seeks 
to fashion garments to suit the individual needs and physical 
endowments rather than to slavishly imitate the latest fashion 
or caprice. 



Domestic Science 131 

As many garments today are purchased already made, and 
sometimes more economically than they could be produced in 
the home, the matter of selection of ready made clothing plays an 
important part in this instruction. Wherever it is possible there 
should be cooperation with local merchants that the girls may 
examine the ready made clothing and compare it in price and 
quality with the school made articles. 

Let the girls compare ready made garments that are purchased 
for the home with those made in the school or home as to quality, 
suitability and price. 

To be able to select good materials and to fashion appropriate 
garments are great achievements in the life of any girl, but they 
will not contribute to her highest economic efficiency unless 
she understands their care and repair. In "Textiles" (Woolman & 
McGowan), the following suggestions are made on "The Care of 
Clothes," by a number of young working girls in New York City: 

"Mend your clothes as soon as they tear. 

Air your clothes before putting them away. 

Hang your clothes up so they will not become wrinkled. 

Sponge and press woolen dresses, skirts, and coats. 

Launder shirt waists at home if you can. 

Keep all buttons and hooks and eyes carefully sewed on. 

When skirt bands wear out, put on new ones. 

Keep skirt braids sewed on. 

The skirt of an old dress can be ripped and washed and made 
into a petticoat. 

Put new ruffles and facings on old petticoats. 

Make your own corset covers at home; corset covers that will 
wear a year can be made for 25 cents. 

Clean your own corsets; remove the bones, wash and dry the 
corset, replace the bones, and bind the top with a piece of ribbon. 

An old sheet or nightgown can be made mto a bag to keep the 
best dress in. 

Darn your stockings. 

Keep your shoes clean and nicely polished. 

Keep your gloves clean, always mended, and buttons sewed on. 

Put your gloves away neatly when not in use. 

Wash your own ties and jabots. 

Make jabots from pieces of lawn and lace left over from waists 
and dresses. 

Keep your hats well brushed. 

Keep your best hat in a box or pillow slip when not in use. 



132 Uniform Course of Study 

On a stormy day wear a veil over your hat. 

When your hat becomes shabby and dusty, take off the trim- 
ming, l)rush and steam it thoroughly, and retrim the hat. 

Keep your eoat on hanger. A coat keeps its shape longer 
when kept on a hanger." 

Try to establish simple taste. In the making of under- 
garments, elaborate yokes decorated with bright colored ribbons 
are not as pretty or tasteful as a dainty edge with insertion to 
match and white or pale tinted bal)y ril)bon. 

Note relation of weave of goods to style of garment and to 
fitting; relation of patterns In goods to style of garment and 
fitting; matching stripes and figures in goods. 

In the conduct of every lesson the teacher should plan her 
work for the best interests of the girls in the class, and their pres- 
ent and future needs. These points should be in mind: 

(1) Why give such a lesson to this class of girls? 

(2) What is its relation to the instruction given yesterday 
and to what will be given tomorrow? 

(3) How can the time allotted to this recitation or laboratory 
be used most efficiently and economically? 

(4) What subject matter should be discussed either formally 
or informally during the period or some particular part of the 
period to make the lesson bear fruit in the home or social group? 

(5) Is there any relation between this lesson as planned and 
current activities of today? How can this be developed? 

(6) Of what value will this lesson be to the girl as a future 
wage-earner? Home-maker? 

(7) How will it influence her taste in clothing? 

(8) How will it influence her expenditure of income or earn- 
ings on clothing? 

When a pupil completes the swork outlined in less than the 
pi'esciil)ed time she should be allowed to duplicate the article. If 
time permits and be credited for the extra work, or make some 
other useful article that can be completed in the time at her dis- 
posal, such as hemming of table linen, making of towels, dust 
cloths, simple apron for home, patching or darning articles from 
home, etc. This will aid in establishing a hal)it of work. 

OUTLINE OF WORK 

(Not less than 3 laboratory periods; the remainder of the five 
periods to be recitation periods.) Caution: Keep hands and ma- 
terials clean. 



Domestic Science 133 

Corset Cover: (2 weeks.) 

(1) Selection of material from samples and selection of pat- 
tern and trimmings. 

a. What points should be considered in selecting ma- 

terials? (Durability, suitability to purpose, ease in 
laundering.) 
(The textile books made, in the 7th and 8th grades may 
be used in connection with this work.) 

b. What points should be considered in selecting the pat- 

terns? (Ease in laundering, comfort, use, etc.) 

(2) Processes involved. 

a. Simple draft of pattern or adapting of commercial 

pattern. (Drafting except in the very simplest 
form has no place in this work.) 

b. Cutting out, pinning or basting, fitting. 

c. Complete the garment by hemming fronts, binding arm 

holes, finishing bottom with hem or peplum, put- 
ting on simple trimming (lace edge and insertion, 
buttons, button holes, etc.). Flat fell seams. 

d. Economy in cutting. 

(3) Use the sewing machine wherever possible in making this 
garment. (Button holes hand made.) 

(4) Correlation with other subjects. 

a. Mathematics: Estimate cost of material and entire 
cost of garment; estimate value of time of worker at 
3 cents an hour. Drafting or adapting commercial 
pattern. 

Compare cost of this garment (exclusive of time spent 
on it), and quality with ready made garments. 
Then again compare cost including time spent upon 
it with ready made garments. 

Discuss reason why the labor of beginners is less 
valuable than that of experienced workers. Why 
is a school girl's time estimated at 3 cents an hour 
and that of a woman in the trade at 10 cents or 25 
cents an hour? 
h. Commercial Geography: Is the material from which 
the article was made manufactured from animal or 
vegetable fibre? Where manufactured? How pro- 
cured locally? Where does the local merchant pro- 
cure the ready made article? 



134 Uniform Course of Study 

c. Art: In choice of materials and trimming and style 
of garment. 
Note: — The beauty of this garment is determined in large 
measure by the lines — where the seams fall. 

(I. Hygiene: Comfort of the body affected if the arm- 
holes are too tight and the waist too short or waist 
band too tight. 
Kept clean by freqtuMit laundcM'ing. 
(5) (Jeneral Points. 

a. The garment kei)t in repair by mending, patching, 

sewing on buttons when needed. 
h. Have the pupils duplicate the garment in the home, 
while making it in the school and allow credit for 
such work. 
c. The garment duplicated in the home may be used by 
the maker or given to some other member of the 
family, or it may be reserved for Christmas giving. 
Modify the trimming used on the duplicated gar- 
ment. 
Note. — A corset cover is a body or a waist and the first step 
in waist making. A waist consists always of the following parts: 
body, sleeves and collar. It may or may not have a belt. 
Drawers: (2 weeks.) 

(1) Selection of materials from samples submitted and selec- 
tion of patterns and trimming. 

a. What points should be considered in selecting mater- 
ials? (Durability, suitability to purpose, ease in 
laundering.) 

h. What points should be considered, in selecting the 
patterns? (Ease in laundering, comfort, use, etc.) 

(2) Processes involved. 

a. Simple draft of pattern or adapting of commercial 

pattern. 
6. Cutting out garments, basting or pinning and fitting. 

c. Complete the garment by necessary facing or hem, 

finishing top, putting on trimming or flounce, but- 
ton and button hole, flat fell seam. 

d. Care in construction — "Opposite sides." 

e. Economy in cutting. 

(3) Use sewing machine wherever possible in making this 
garment. 



Domestic Science 135 

(4) Correlation with other subjects: (See 4th point, a, b, and 
c under CORSET COVER.) 

d. Hygiene: Comfort of the body affected if the garment 
is ill-fitting. Should not be too tight at waist band. 
Kept clean by frequent laundering. 

(5) General Points. 

a. The garment kept in repair by mending, patching, 
sewing on buttons when needed. 

h. Have the pupil duplicate the garment in the home, 
while making it in the school and allow credit for 
such work. 

c. The garment duplicated in the home may be used 
by the maker or given to some other member of the 
family, or it may be reserved for Christmas giving. 
Modify the trimming used on the duplicated gar- 
ment. 

Petticoat: (3 weeks.) 

(1) Selection of materials, pattern, and trimming. (The 
textile books made in the 7th and 8th grades may be used in con- 
nection with this work.) See points a and b under No. 1, 
CORSET COVER. 

(2) Processes involved: 

a. See CORSET COVER. 
6. See CORSET COVER. 

c. The use of the gore is involved in the making of this 

garment; also the making and adjustment of a 
flounce. The flounce may be tucked and hemmed 
or trimmed in lace and insertion. A plain seam over- 
cast is preferred for this garment. 

(3) Use the sewing machine wherever possible in making this 
garment. 

(4) Correlation with other subjects: a, b, c. See corres- 
ponding points under CORSET COVER. 

d. Hygiene: Waist band not too tight. 

Kept clean by frequent laundering. 

(5) General Points. 

a. Garment kept in repair by mending, patching, darn- 
ing, etc. 
h and c. See b and c Point 5 under CORSET COVER. 



136 Uniform Course of Study 

Note. — Petticoat is a modified dress skirt. The making of 
this garment gives a basis for making a dress skirt. 

A dress is a waist and a skirt. The basis for the form- 
er has been developed in making a corset cover, a 
basis for the latter developed in making the petti- 
coat. 

Lingerie Waist or Soft Wool Waist: (2 weeks.) 

Have at hand samples for lingerie waist, soft wool waist and 
wool dress skirt. Pupils make choice for lingerie or soft wool 
waist and also for a dress skirt which will be made after the waists 
are finished. 

The choice of waist will determine the choice of material for 
the skirt. 

The materials for both may be purchased at the same time if 
this means convenience and economy. If postponed it may not 
be possil)le to get the goods later. 

If these articles are not needed by the girls, or they cannot 
be provided with the material, let them assist other girls in mak- 
ing their garments or make the garment for some one outside 
who is willing to furnish the material. Select inexpensive good 
wearing material. 

In the selection of wool for skirt and waist (if wool waist is 
chosen), tests, to determine quality of goods, should be made of 
the samples, to aid in the choice of the fabric: 

To Tell Cotton from Wool 

1. Cotton flames and wool curls. 

2. Sulphuric acid dissolves cotton and leaves wool. 

3. Caustic soda dissolves wool. 

How largely will the personal appearance as to size, build, 
complexion, etc., determine the choice of style of waist? (Soft 
flannel or lingerie?) 

How largely will needs of individual determine this? 

How largely will points of economy determine choice? 

How largely will season of year or special use determine this? 

Lingerie }Vaist: (2 weeks.) 

(1) Selection of patterns, trimming and anything not de- 
termined at previous lessons. (Decide upon long or short sleeves, 
collar or low neck.) 



Domestic Science 137 

a. (See corresponding point under CORSET COVER.) If 
white material is not selected, must have regard to 
fast colors. Also suitability to style and complexion 
of wearer. 

h. (See corresponding point under CORSET COVER.) 
Suitability, becomingness to wearer and occasion. 

(2) Processes involved: 

a. Use of commercial pattern^ — adapting if necessary. 

h. Cutting out, pinning or basting, fitting. 

c. Complete garment. Sewing in sleeves, put on collar 
or finish neck, lace insertion, buttons and button 
holes or buttons and fastenings, etc. Girls should 
assist in fitting each other. 

(3) Waist is machine and hand made. 

(4) Correlation with other subjects: 

a and 6. (See under CORSET COVER.) Consideration 
of skirt fabrics as to cost, width, and difference be- 
tween fabrics. 

c. Art: Harmony of color. Lines in waist, suitability to 

wearer. 

d. Hygiene : Neck too low or sleeves too short (also 

Art). 

(5) General Points: 

a. (See under CORSET COVER.) Also darning rent in 
waist. 

h. Instead of duplicating this article in the home, work 
may be started on Christmas articles of various 
kinds. It has been recommended with the descrip- 
tion of preceding articles in this course that the gar- 
ment be duplicated in the home to establish a habit 
of work. Where this is not feasible the pupils 
should be encouraged to do other sewing at home and 
credited for the work, on the same basis that they 
are credited for the work in school. Such home sew- 
ing could consist of hemming towels, table cloths, 
napkins, making sheets and pillow cases, mending 
and patching and darning, etc. 
In connection with the duplication of the garment it 
was suggested that such additional articles might 
be used at Christmas time. Other things to be done 
for the Christmas giving would include some art 



138 Uniform Course of Study 

needle work, as the making of guest towels, laun- 
dry bags, table runners, shoe bags, corset bags, 
dress protectors, pillow tops, initial marked line, etc. 

Soft Wool Waist: 

(See points under lingerie waist.) Why would not short 
sleeves be appropriate? What about trimmings? Could some 
art needle work be put on the waist (a little fancy stitching). 
Can this be overdone? How will Art be correlated with the work 
if some fancy stitching is done? 

Wool Sknt: (2 weeks.) 

(1) Selection of patterns, trimming and anything not de- 
termined at previous lessons. 

a. (Materials were selected earlier.) Style of garment de- 

termined upon. 

b. What points considered in selecting style of skirt? 

Will the same style be suitable for each girl? Reason 
for answer. Will a tall thin girl want same style 
as a short heavy girl? Will an extreme style be a 
wise choice? (Very wide or very narrow, very short 
or very long?) 

(2) Processes Involved: 

Cutting, fitting and hanging (girls should hang skirts 
for one another), character of seams — plackets. 

(3) Machine made. 

(4) Correlation with other subjects. 

a, b, and c (See under CORSET COVER.) 
(L Hygiene: Waist band too tight, skirt too short, or too 
long. 
Note. — If possible have pupils visit woolen mill. 

Lingerie Dress (4 weeks.) One piece dress. 

(1) Selecting materials and trimmings. Testing colors and 
quality of goods. Selecting style of garment. 

a. What points to be considered in selecting materials 

and trimming? Suitability to wearer — economy. 
(Is a cheaper dress always more economical?) 

b. What points in deciding upon pattern? Suitability, 

adaptability to wearer, lines, economy. 

(2) Processes involved: 

a. Adapting commercial pattern. 



Domestic Science 139 

h. Cutting out, pinning or basting, fitting. 

c. Making garment. Hand sewing, machine sewing. 

(3) Machine and hand made. 

(4) Correlation with other subjects. 
a and b (See CORSET COVER). 

c. Art: Lines and spaces in tucks or other trimming used 

on garment to adapt it to wearer. 

d. Hygiene: Discomforts of ill-fitting garment: arm- 

holes too tight, short waisted, tight waisted, nar- 
row in the back across shoulders, skirt so long it 
gathers up the dirt, collar too tight, sleeves too tight. 

Hygiene of Underwear: (One recitation period.) 

(1) What of the character of the clothing worn next to the 
body? (Choice with reference to heat conductivity, capacity for 
absorbing moisture and affording ventilation, cleanly qualities, 
weight, fit, and the dye used in the material — (hosiery). Dyed 
fabrics worn next to the skin should have fast colors that do not 
yield to friction or perspiration. To test the resistance to fric- 
tion rub the fabric on white unstarched cotton fabric. To test 
the resistance to perspiration place sample in a bath of 30 per 
cent dilute acetic acid (one teaspoonful to a quart of water) 
warmed to the temperature of the body 98.6 degrees F. Dip the 
sample a number of times in the bath and dry without wringing be- 
tween parchment papers. 

(2) Why is it more diflficult to harden the body now through 
exposure than in primitive times? 

(3) Is there danger from dressing too warm? 

(4) Why does wool feel warmer than cotton? 

(5) The body should be unrestricted. 

Tight clothing whether shoes, corsets, or skirts, or 
clothing so heavy that its weight is a burden, 
should not be worn. Tight collars and tight waist 
bands should be avoided. Comfortable shoes 
should be worn. Rheumatism often results from 
broken down or weakened arches. How about 
wearing low shoes in the winter time? 

Laundry: (Two recitation and two laboratory periods.) 
Necessity for keeping clothes clean. Why? 

1. To remove dirt and keep pores in cloth open. 

2. To dry cloth and renew power of absorption. 



140 Uniform Course of Study 

3. To destroy bacteria. 

(What are bacteria?") 

Exercises: 

Bleach cotton and linen. 

Remove fruit stain, iron rust, ink stain from garments brought 
from home. 

Wash woolen fabric. (Not hot water.) Use mild soap. No 
rubbing and twisting. If water needs to be softened use am- 
monia or borax. 

Iron wool fabric. 

What are soap substitutes? (Bran water, starch water.) 

Why not wash white silk gloves in hot water? (Leaves them 
yellow.) 

Steps in laundering: 
Sorting. 
Mending. 
Removal of stains. 
Soaking. 
Rinsing. 
Blueing. 
Starching. 
Drying. 
Sprinkling and rolling. 

(What is the best way to- sprinkle clothes?) 
Ironing. 
P'olding. 
Airing before use. 

Exercises: 

Wash and iron tea towels. 
Wash and iron table linen. 
Wash and iron aprons. 

Additional Points: 

(1) Dry cleaning — gasoline, ether, chloroform, fuller's earth, 
animal charcoal. 

(2) Cleaning of such articles as laces, dress shields, corsets, 
feathers, veils, gloves, straw hats, etc. 



Foods and Cookery 141 

FRESHMAN YEAR 

Second Term 

FOODS AND COOKERY AND HOUSEHOLD MANAGE- 
MENT 

"Feeding the family" is the great consideration of every 
househokl. 

As the income grows less, restrictions are made on shelter and 
clothing, but the expenditure for food essentials must remain 
fairly constant. 

Fine cooks are not always the ones who feed the family best. 
The temptation to prepare new, rich dishes crowds out considera- 
tion of the balanced ration and the needs of individual members of 
the family, based on age, occupation and general physical condi- 
tion. 

The legitimate purpose of a course in foods and cookery in the 
pubhc schools must be to so train girls that they may know how to 
select the foods and prepare economically in the very best pos- 
sible way, a well balanced meal. It is not the purpose of such a 
course to teach the preparation of numerous dishes, and es- 
pecially those that are new and untried. Its purpose is to give 
the pupils a basis in food preparation and combinations that will 
enable them to grasp the underlying principles, so they can later 
make intelligent use of new recipes, when they come to hand and 
know their place in the preparation of a well balanced meal. 

In presenting the lessons the teacher should have in mind 
such points as : 

(1) Why do I present this lesson to this class of girls? 

(2) Could I spend their time more profitably by some other 
type or method? 

(3) How is this lesson related to the preceding and succeed- 
ing lessons of this series? 

(4) How shall I discover whether these girls have acquired 
the information and skill which this exercise proposes to give? 

(5) How can I relate this lesson most closely to the home and 
social group, that these girls may carry over the information and 
skill acquired here to some useful end, in home and society? 

The results to ])e achieved look not only to the giving of in- 
formation and skill that will make good future home makers, but 
to such as will make these girls more useful as daughters in their 
homes, n^ady to cooperate with other members of the family, and 



142 Uniform Course of Study 

to realize new and higher ideals of service and of home better- 
ment. 

Dr. Harry Barnard, State Food and Drug Commissioner, 
Indianapolis, writes: 

"The daughter who studies food values at high school and who 
learns, there, some of the mysteries of human nutrition, will find 
in her mother's kitchen another laboratory, diffeiently equipped, 
perhaps, but just as promising a field for study. When she sees 
this the future is safe. Another cook has been born and the 
kitchen has become a scientific workshop." 

Scientists have investigated foods in relation to the needs 
of the body and have classified under the title of food stufTs, the 
essential constituents of the foods we eat, as protein, carbohy- 
drates, fats, mineral matters and water. These terms are familiar 
to the pupils from their work in the 7th and 8th grades. 

(1) The protein food stuffs come in greatest abundance 
from meats, eggs, milk, cheese and some kinds of vegetables 
(dried beans). Their use in the diet is to build up the 
cells of the body wdiich are torn down by daily bodily activi- 
ties. (Should people eat some protein foods daily? Reason for 
answer.) 

(2) The carbohydrates are the starches and sugars found 
most largely in fruits and starchy vegetables. These supply the 
body with energy. (Should people eat some carbohydrate foods 
daily? Reason for answer.) 

(3) Fats, found in butter, cream and meats also supply the 
body with cmergy. (Should people eat some foods containing fat, 
daily? Since fats and carbohydrates both supply energy, can one 
take the place of the other? Which is better for children? Adults? 
Old p(>()pl(>? lieasons for answer.) 

(4) Milk, eggs, vegetables, cereals and fruits are food sources 
of mineral matter, which assists in building up the body and reg- 
uhitiug body })rocesses. (Should i)e()ple eat some food contain- 
ing mineral salts daily? Reason for answer). 

(5) Water found in almost all foods is one of the most valu- 
able of food stuffs in the aid it fui'nishes in regulating l)ody pro- 
cesses. (Should water in addition to what is found in foods, be 
taken into the system (hiily? Reason for answer.) 

(6) Cellulose not a food stuff but hel])ful iji regulating body 
processes, is a tough substance somewhat like the fiber of wood. 
The skins of vegetables and fruits, the covering of seeds, the fib- 
rous material found in rolled oats, all contain much cellulose. 



Foods and Cookery 143 

Cellulose is valuable in the diet because mineral matter ex- 
ists with it and because it furnishes bulk to foods, thus stimulat- 
ing the flow of the digestive juices as it brushes against the walls of 
the digestive organs. 

Vitamines: Recent discoveries and experiments recognize a 
food ingredient called vitamines, extremely essential to health. 
Of this interesting material Dr. J. N. Hurty, Secretary State 
Board of Health, states: 

"Vitamines are found in all real foods. Real foods give 
nourishment and strength. The word vitamines means, life- 
ammonias. They are ammonia compounds and may be said to 
give life to foods. Rice, one of our best known foods is whole- 
some and nourishing, but if we remove its faintly brown coat by 
polishing, it becomes actually poisonous. Pigeons or chickens fed 
on polished rice cjuickly develop paralysis and die, but they grow 
well and strong if the polishings are given to them. The reason is, 
the life giving vitamines are in the coatings of the grains. Whole 
unpolished rice grains, will support life in birds and people, but 
when polished, they lose their food value. Until lately, polish- 
ed rice was sold at all groceries, but now the health authorities 
forbid its sale. It was polished by tradesmen to make it white 
and pearl like in appearance. Natural rice is not as pretty as 
polished rice, but "pretty is that pretty does" and so we have gone 
back to the natural grain. A disease called beriberi which is fre- 
quently fatal, is caused by eating foods in which the vitamines 
have been destroyed by over-cooking or removed as in the in- 
stance of polished rice. Another disease called pellagra which fre- 
quently ends in insanity and death is also produced by eating 
devitamised foods. It is found that soda kills vitamines, and, 
therefore, we must not put soda in our foods. Corn bread if 
cooked with bicarbonate of soda to make it light, has its food value 
destroyed. If, however, the corn meal and soda are made into a 
dough with sour milk instead of water or sweet milk, then the 
vitamines are not killed. This is because the lactic acid in the sour 
milk neutralizes the bicarbonate and makes lactate of soda which 
does not attack vitamines. At the same time the lactic acid 
liberates the carbon dioxide gas and it makes the corn bread light 
and more wholesome. Biscuits made light with bicarbonate of 
soda (baking soda) and which always have a "soda taste," are 
very unwholesome. Bicarbonate of soda is frequently called sim- 
])l3^ "soda," but this is not soda as known to chemists for they ap- 
ply this name to concentrated lye. Cooks should not use bi- 



144 Uniform Course of Study 

carbonate of soda in cooking dried beans, dried corn, dried peas 
and the like, even if it does hasten the process. Our modern fine 
process white fiour, is not as wholesome and nourishing as so- 
called whole wheat flour because the high milling process takes out 
the vitamines. Canned goods have no vitamines, or at most only 
very small amounts. Nevertheless they are desirable foods, but 
people who "live out of cans" make a great mistake. Everyone 
should eat some raw food or foods every day, at every meal, if 
possible. All raw fruits and vegetables contain vitamines. Salads 
are always wholesome, but they like all foods should be eaten in 
moderation. An apple a day keeps the doctor away, is an old 
saying and means eat plenty of raw fruit." 

During the day people should take into the body as foods, a 
well proportioned amount of these various food stuffs and it is 
wise not to have any meal with one of them in great excess. 

(What would be the effect of a meal of proteins alone? Of 
carbohydrates alone? Of fats alone?) 

Which one needs more protein food, a blacksmith or a lawyer? 
A carpenter or a preacher? A farmer or a teacher? A six year 
child or a man in the prime of life? A man of thirty-five in or- 
dinary health or a man of eighty? 

Meals should be eaten regularly, no matter what the number 
per day and there should not he a wide variation in the time for 
eating and the amount consumed on different days, nor should 
the digestive system be abused b}^ being called upon to take care 
of food between meals. 

In this grade of school work and at this stage in the study of 
foods and cookery, the scientific knowledge of the pupils is too 
limited to make it advisable to take up a study of the exact amount 
of food stuffs, needed daily by different individuals under vary- 
ing conditions, but some general principles can be applied in the 
preparation of foods and planning of meals. 

(1) In apportioning the kinds and amounts of foods in or- 
der to have a balanced diet, the whole day should be used as a 
unit, rather than the individual meal. (What relation will this 
have to the housewife's planning of meals? How many and what 
meals planned at a time?) 

(2) Endeavor to distribute the protein, fat and carbohydrate 
through the day, so that no meal will have a striking preponder- 
ance of one kind of food stuff'? 

(Would it be a good thing to serve a meal of meat with ma- 
caroni and cheese? Reason for answer. Of rice and potatoes? 



Foods and Cookery 145 

Reason for answer. Of pie with fried potatoes? Reason for 
answer.) 

(3) With tiie exception of a few sucli staples as bread, but- 
ter and milk, try to avoid sei'ving any food in the same form twice 
in the same day and serve it preferably only once in any foi'm. 

(Would it be well to have mashed potatoes for both dinner and 
supper? Would it be well to have boiled potatoes for dinner and 
the left overs in some other form for suppei'? Would not the econ- 
omy in this case compensate for repetition of same kind of food? 
Reason for answer.) 

(4) Try to avoid serving any food which gives character to a 
dish, twice in the same meal, even in different forms. (Should 
tomato soup and tomato salad be served for the same meal? 
Reasons for answer.) 

Have pupils study their own food needs, and those of members 
of their families, with reference to age, health conditions and 
occupations and try to decide in a general way the best diet for all. 
"It is not beneath the dignity of any family to avoid useless 
expenditures no matter how generous its income and the in- 
telligent housekeeper should take as much pride in setting a good 
table, at a low price, as the manufacturer in lessening the cost of 
production in his factory." 

What is meant by the statement "one man's meat is another 
man's poison?" (Milk is a wholesome digestible food for many 
people, but there are persons who are made ill from drinking it and 
should avoid it. How did they discover that milk was not good 
for them? Eggs are considered good food for children, but oc- 
casionally children cannot eat eggs, even when combined with 
other food materials as in making cake or other foods.) 

When the program can be so arranged the periods in cooking 
should come just before the noon hour, that the articles may be 
eaten with the school lunch or taken home by the pupils to eat 
with the noon meal. 

OUTLINE OF WORK 

(Not less than three laboratory periods per week, the remain- 
ing periods given to recitations.) 

Caution: Absolute cleanliness' of person, of foods, and all 
equipment used must be rigidly observed. 

The cooking ai)rons made hi the 7th and 8th grades, if still in 
good repair, may l)e used here. If they are worn out, new aprons 
may be made outside of school, as part of the supplementary 
woi'k in Sewing, following the instruction gi\(Mi last year for mak- 

10 — 5077 



146 Uniform Course of Study 

ing these articles. Two such aprons should be availalole for change 
in laundering. 

1. (Classification of Food Stuffs: (One week.) 

a. Read to pupils that part of the Introduction to this Course 
of Study dealing with the Classification of food stuffs 
(p. 143), placing on blackboard the important points. 
Write on blackboard the questions asked in that part 
of the Introduction and let the pupils discuss them and 
arrive at conclusions. To show the presence of these 
food stuffs in the food we eat, simple tests have been 
devised. 

Exei'cises: 

(1) The presence of water is shown by heating a small quan- 
tity of the food in a test tube. The water will condense on the 
upper part of the tube. 

(2) The presence of carbohydrates (starch) in corn meal 
or buckwheat may be shown by the Iodine test. Grind for some 
time a sample of corn meal with cold water, in a mortar, then 
filter the mixture through a cotton cloth into a tall cylinder or 
beaker. Allow this to stand until the next day so that the starch 
may settle; then pour off the liquid and carefully dry the residue 
in an evaporating dish on the water bath. Make a paste by mix- 
ing about five grams of the residue with cold water and pour into 
a beaker containing 100 c.c. boiling water. When this solution 
cools add a few drops of iodine to some of it, and if a blue color 
results, the presence of starch is shown. 

(3) The presence of protein in flour may be shown by mix- 
ing about 50 grams of flour with cold water. Put the dough in a 
cloth, knead the mass under a steam of running water for some 
time. The starch will pass through the mesh of the cloth and the 
protein (in the form of gluten) will remain. Gluten is yellowish 
gray in color extremely elastic and sticky and if moistened and 
heated expands. Why are such qualities desirable in flour 
when making yeast bread? 

Which flour is better for bread baking, th© one with more or 
the one with less protein? 

(4) To show the presence of Fat in milk shake a few cubic 
centimeters of fn^sh milk in a test tube, with half its volume of 
ether, and allow the mixture to settle. Draw off the ethereal 



Foods and Cookery • 147 

layer with a pipette and allow it to evaporate spontaneously in 
a watch glass. Note taste and odor of butter thus obtained. 

The Babcock apparatus has been designed to determine the 
exact quantity of Butter Fat in a certain amount of milk. 

Suggest and make other simple tests to show the presence 
of these food stuffs in different kinds of food. 

The Daily Food: (One week.) 

Read to the pupil the Introduction to this Course (p. 145) 
on the balanced meal. Write principal points on the blackboard, 
and all the questions asked in that part of the Introduction. 

Have the pupils answer the questions and discuss freely their 
opinion of the day's rations in their own homes relative to a 
balanced ration. 

The teacher should have written on the board some menus 
and get the opinions of the pupils as to whether these are bal- 
anced menus. Suggestive questions: 

How many kinds of meat should be served with a meal? 
How many kinds of vegetables should be served with a meal? 
How many kinds of desserts should be served with a meal? 
How many kinds of beverages should be served with a meal? 
In packing a school lunch for children what attention should 
be paid to having a balanced meal? 

Why do children get tired of hot soup served with their noon 
lunch? Cocoa? Pupils may suggest a half dozen good simple 
school lunches. Teachers criticize these lunches. What would l)e 
the difference between a lunch to be packed for a boy and one for a 
man? 

We buy most of our food materials, and it is important to know 
how to market. Why has New York City a Mayor's Committee 
on Food Supply? Why has such a Committee prepared a pam- 
phlet entitled "What the Purchasing Public Should Know?" 

Sometimes the food we buy is adulterated. Food laws have 

been made to protect the public against these adulterations, and 

simple tests provided to detect the presence of these adulterants. 

What are some of the Federal Food Laws? Are there special 

Food Laws in Indiana? If so what are they? 

How far should the following affect one's buying? (Season 
to buy, tastes of family.) 



148 Uniform Course of Study 

Exercis('i<: 

(1) To d(>toct the presence of glucose in honey, add to a small 
portion of hone}- 3 or 4 parts of strong alcohol; if dextrin (a con- 
stituent of glucose) is present, quite a precipitate will appear, ])ut 
with genuine honey only a slight cloudiness. 

(2) To show when the vinegar is genuine cider vinegar, evap- 
orate 20 c.c. in an evaporating dish over a water bath, nearly to 
dryness. Notice odor and taste of residue. If not genuine cider 
vinegar, l)ut a spirit vinegar colored to resemble cider vinegar, the 
residue will be very small and practically odorless. 

(3) To distinguish genuine fresh butter from renovated but- 
ter and oleomargarine, melt a lump of butter the size of a hickory 
nut in a large spoon, by heating it directly over a gas fiame. Fresh 
l)utter will melt cpiietly Vv'ith many small bubliles, thi'oughout the 
mass, which produce much foam as the water is drained off; 
oleomargarine or process l)utter will sputter and crackle like hot 
fat containing water, and produce little foam. 

(4) To test table salt for starch, which is sometimes added to 
prevent its becoming hard upon standing, boil ten grams of salt 
with water, allow it to cool and give Iodine test. The blue or 
violet color will show the presence of starch. 

The Morning Meal: (3 weeks.) 

What is the morning meal called? Why? Is it usually a light 
or heavy meal? How should that l)e determined? Should the 
breakfast for a carpenter and a school teacher be the same? 
A farmer and a preacher? A blacksmith and a lawyer? (Rea- 
sons for answers.) Should the bn^akfast for a child six years old 
and a mature man or woman be the same? Should the breakfast 
for a strong mature man and a man eighty years old be the same? 
Why is fruit usually eaten with breakfast? (First course.) For 
people of what age and occupation would each of the follow- 
ing breakfasts serve the best purj^ose? Suggest improvements in 
any of these menus that will make better balanced meals: 

(1) Baked Apple 

Cereal (Cooked) 
Eggs Meat Potatoes 

Coffee 



Foods and Cookery 149 

(2) Grape Fruit 
Cereal (uncooked) 

Poached Eggs Toast 

Wheat Cakes and Maple Syrup 

Coffee 

(3) Bread and Butter Cold Meat 

Doughnuts Stewed Fruit 

Cocoa 

(4) Stewed Apriocots 

Soft Cooked Eggs Buckwheat Cakes and Syrup 
Coffee or Cocoa 

(5) Stewed Prunes 

Cracked Wheat 

Dropped Egg on Toast 
Cocoa 

(6) Oranges 

Cereal 
Creamed Dried Beef and Egg on Toast 
Coffee 

Laboratory: 

(1) Make Muffins: 

2 cupfuls flour 1 to 2 tb. sugar. 

3^ tp. baking powder 1 egg 

^ tp. salt I cup milk 

2 tb. melted butter 
Break egg into a mixing bowl, beat it and add milk. Mix 
dry ingredients thoroughly. Add these (through a sifter) to 
the egg mixture. Melt the fat and drop into flour mixture. Mix 
quickly and thoroughly and drop into buttered muffin pan. 

What do we call such a mixture? (Drop batter.) Relation 
of flour to water in such a mixture. Other forms of batter. 
(Pour.) Difference between the two. Difference between bat- 
ter and dough. Explain. How would you modify this recipe 
to make whole wheat muffins? 

(2) Make cocoa: 

I cupful cold cocoa 3 cui)fuls milk 

1 cupful water | cupful sugar 

I tp. salt. 



150 Uniform Course of Study 

Mix cocoa and water together an(i boil for ten minutes. 
Add milk and sugar to mixture and cook over hot water for half an 
hour. Add salt. Beat well and serve. What are good food 
stuffs? What food stuffs are most abundant in cocoa? 

(3) Make Coffee: (Proportion for one cupful.) 
1 heaping tb. coarsely ground coffee. 

1 tb. cold water. 

1 cup boiling water. 

Bit of crushed egg shell or a little egg white. 

1 tb. cold water. 
Place coffee, cold water, and egg into a well cleaned coffee 
pot. Mix and then add boiling water. Boil for about three 
minutes. Remove from fire, pour out about one-half cupful 
of coffee, in order to rinse grounds from inside and spout 
of coffee pot; add second quantity of cold water. Allow to stand in 
a warm place for about five minutes for coffee to become clear. 
What food stuffs are most abundant in coffee? Is coffee 
nutritious? Why do people drink it? 

(4) Cook Cereal: Pour cereal slowly into boiling salted water. 
Cook directl}^ over flame for alwut ten minutes. Then place over 
boiling water and cook from one-half to three hours. Generally 
one scant teaspoonful of salt is used for each cupful of cereal. 
The amount of water depends upon kind of cereal. Should be 
cooked if possible in double boiler. 

Name some different cereals used for food, both cooked and 
uncooked. Common ones are rolled oats and wheatena. 

Have the pupils tell if they use cereals in their homes and what 
kinds. 

How will the amount of water used differ in the cooking of 
rolled oats and wheatena. 

What food stuffs are especially abundant in cereals? 

Is rice a cereal? 

{5) Make Toast: 
Dry toast. 
Buttered toast. 
Creamed toast. 

Creamed toast: 

1| tb. butter 1, tl). (lour 

^ tp. salt 2 cupfuls milk or cream 

6 slices of toast. 



Foods and Cookery 151 

Heat butter, add flour and salt and mix. Add the milk, a 
small portion at a time, heating the mixture as the milk is added 
until it thickens. Pour the mixture over the toast. 

Have the pupils prepare and serve a breakfast of fresh fruit, 
cocoa, a cooked cereal, eggs, and plain muffins. Have the pupils 
estimate the cost of this meal. 

Have pupils prepare breakfasts at home and report on menu 
and time occupied. Have pupils determine what breakfasts are 
best in their homes for the members of their families. Have the 
pupils plan a breakfast for four people at a total cost of fifty 
cents. 

Dinner: (4 weeks.) 

This is usually the heavy meal of the day and may be eaten 
either at noon or in the evening. A meat of some kind is gen- 
erally served with dinner. How many times a day should a school 
teacher eat meat? a high school girl? a high school boy? a carpen- 
ter? a lawyer? 

What are meat substitutes? 

Meats: 

This subject was touched upon in the 7th and 8th grades last 
year. 

What are different kinds of meats? (Beef, lamb, veal, mutton, 
etc.) 

What are different cuts of meat? (Sirloin, porterhouse, rib 
roast, the round, neck, brisket, etc.) 

What is the best way to use each of these various cuts? 

Have pupils tell wdiat kinds of meat are usually served in their 
homes and how most frequently prepared. 

How can you tell good meat? 

If when you purchased a piece of meat you were not ready to 
use it where should it be kept until used? (Ice box, refrigerator, 
etc.) Why? (Bacteria: decay of food is due largely to the pres- 
ence of minute vegetable organisms. What will prevent the 
growth of these organisms? Dryness, a low temperature, ex- 
clusion of air.) 

How are ice boxes built? Could the boys in the manual 
training department build an ice box for use in the home? What 
are the essential parts of an ice box? Why should an ice box or 
refrigerator be kept in a cool place? Why should the ice chamber 
of a refrigerator or ice box be washed out once a week and a 



152 Uniform Course of Study 

solution of washing;- soda poured down the waste pipe? Why 
should the food chambers be washed out once a week and dried, 
and no spilled food allowed to remain a moment? Why should 
the lid of an ice box or doors of a refrigerator never be left open? 
What other food should be served with the meat for a dinner? 
(Vegetables, salad or relish, desserts, beverages, etc.) How many 
and what kinds of vegetables served with the different kinds of 
meats? Plow many and what kinds of desserts? Beverages? 
Salads? What are different kinds of vegetables (green, starchy)? 
If two vegetables are served with the meat should both be of the 
same kind, namely both starchy or both green? How are vege- 
tables prepared? (Boiled, steamed, creamed, baked, escalloped, 
etc.) Which ones are served sometimes uncooked? How? Is 
there a difference in the length of time in cooking different vege- 
tables? Why? 

Laborafonj: 

1. Visit meat market and study tlifferent cuts of meat and 
cost. Determine which are the most economical for house- 
hold use. 

Learn how to tell good meat from poor meat (color, texture, 
etc.). 

Visit a meat packing plant, if there is one in the community, 
and stock-yards. 

2. Cook a piece of meat by the best method adapted to that 
kind and cut of meat to make it palatable and nutritious. 

3. Have pupils plan three dinners to be criticized by teacher. 
Have pupils criticize the following dinner menus as to their suit- 
ability for a school teacher, farmer, blacksmith, child six years 
old, high school pupils and suggest improvements in them: 

(1) Breast of Lamb 

Creamed Potatoes Mashed Rutabagas 

Lettuce and Pimento Salad 
Lemon Gelatin Chocolate Wafers. 

(2) Lamb Chops 

Scalloped Potatoes Beets 

Appl(> Pie. 

(3) Veal (^itlets 

CreanuMl Cabbage Mashed Potatoes Tomato Aspic 
Pineapple Whip 



Foods and Cookery 153 

(4) Soup 

Roa t Beef Creamed Potatoes 

Stewed Corn Shirred Tomatoes 

Pudding. 

(5) Baked Ham Scalloped Potatoes 

Peas 

Lettuce Salad 

Ice Cream 

(6) Roast Lamb Mashed Potatoes 

Beans Asparagus 

Pickles or Olives 
Cherry Pie. 

4. Have pupils prepare and serve dinner for four people us- 
ing one kind of meat, two vegetables, one salad, a dessert and a 
beverage. (Pupils may add anything they feel is needed to make 
the meal complete.) Estimate cost of meal. 

5. Have each pupil plan a dinner menu suitable for her own 
family. Have pupils prepare such dinners in their own homes and 
report on same. 

6. Have pupils plan dinner for four people. The entire dinner 
to cost $L00. 

Luncheon or Supper: (3 weeks.) 

Third Daily Meal: If in the homes of the pupils the dinner is 
eaten in the evening and the third daily meal is served at noon, 
the work on luncheons should be taken. If in the homes of the 
pupils the dinner is eaten at noon and the third meal in the even- 
ing, the work on suppers should be taken. 

Luncheon: When luncheon is served in the home, the daily 
meals usually are, breakfast in the morning, luncheon at noon 
and dinner in the evening. Is the luncheon a light or heavy 
meal? Should it vary with age, occupations and health conditions 
of people? Have pupils criticize the following luncheon menus : 

(1) Fried Baby Sausages and Apple Rings 

Lemon Cream Rice 
Rolls Tea 

(2) Spaghetti with Cheese and Pimento 

Celery Salad 
Sliced Oranges Jelly Roll 



154 Uniform Course of Study 

(3) Croquettes 

Bran Muffins Pickled Beet Relish 

Cocoanut Pudding with Hot Chocolate Sauce. 

(4) Creamed Fish on Toast 

Fruit Tapicoa 
Lemon Snaps Cocoa 

Laboratory: 

(1) Make soup (often served with dinner as an opening 
course). What is meat stock? (Prepared last year in 7th and 
8th grade?) What is vegetable stock? Relation to soups. 

Vegetable Cream Soup: (White sauce flavored with vegetable 
pulp or juice or vegetable stock^the water in which the vege- 
table was cooked.) 

Use I to ^ cup pulp to 1 cup sauce. For soup flavored with 
juice or stock use a maximum of ^ cup juice to 1 cup sauce. 
The amount of flour will depend upon kind of vegetable 
used, the amount varying from 1 teaspoonful for potato soup to 
1 tablespoonful per cup for tomato soup. 

(2) Prepare scalloped potatoes. (White sauce made in 7th 
and 8th grades, last year.) 

(3) Make tea. | to 1 tp. black tea leaves to 1 cupful fresh- 
ly l)oiled water. Heat teapot by pouring l^oiling water into it. 
Pour out the water and add the tea leaves. Pour over them fresh- 
ly })oiled water. Place teapot in warm place to steep for about 
five minutes. 

(4) Make Blanc Mange. 

2 capfuls milk 2 tsp. vanilla 

I cupful cornstarch I cupful sugar 

Salt. 

Scald milk in double boiler. Mix sugar and cornstarch. 
Add hot milk slowly to sugar and cornstarch mixture, stirring 
rapidly. Return to double boiler and cook 30 minutes, stirring 
rapidly until mixture thickens. Add salt and flavoring and pour 
into a mold which has been moistened with cold water. Cool, turn 
from mold. Serve with sugar and cream. 

Have pupils prepare luncheon of vegetable cream soup, 
scalloped potatoes, sliced tomatoes, blanc mange and tea. 



Foods and Cookery 155 

Have each pupil plan a luncheon for her own home and estimate 
cost. Have each pupil plan a luncheon menu for four people that 
will cost sixty cents. 

Supper: When dinner is served at noon the evening meal is 
called supper. 

Why is there some economical advantage in having supper in- 
stead of luncheon? (Use of left-overs from dinner.) May the 
left-overs from the preceding day be utilized in the luncheon? 
What care in keeping them for such purpose? What are some left- 
overs? (Meats, vegetables, desserts, etc.) It is estimated that 
great waste occurs in many homes because of lack of knowledge 
in utilizing left-overs. Let pupils tell what disposition is made 
of left-overs in their homes. 

Is a light meal in the evening better than a heavy one? Is 
the order of meals i.e., breakfast, dinner, supper; or breakfast, 
luncheon, dinner affected by the occupations of the people? 
(Reason for answer.) 

Laboratory: 

(1) Make Baked Hash. 

1| cupfuls chopped meat and fat 

1| cupfuls mashed potatoes 

Salt and pepper 

1 teaspoonful scraped onion 

Chopped parsley 

\ cupful (or more) boiling water or stock 

1 cupful cracker crumbs, or 

2 cupfuls soft bread crumbs 
2 tablespoonfuls butter. 

Mix all ingredients, except the butter and crumbs. Add 
enough water or stock to moisten all ingredients. Place the mix- 
ture in a buttered baking dish. Butter the bread or cracker 
crumbs. Cover the hash mixture with the buttered crumbs, and 
bake slowly until the meat is thoroughly heated and the crumbs 
browned. 

(2) Make Scalloped Meat. 

2 cupfuls chopped meat 

2 tablespoonfuls fat 

3 tablespoonfuls flour 
1| teaspoonfuls salt 

\ teaspoonful pepper 

1 teaspoonful scraped onion or chopped parsley 



156 Uniform Course of Study 

1^ cupfuls milk, stock or water 
2 ci^jfuls l)uttcre(l (•niinl)s. 

Make a brown sauce of the fat, salt, pepper, flour, onion or 
parsley, and milk or stock. Mix with the meat. Butter the 
crumbs, and place about one half cupful in the bottom of the 
buttered bakino- dish. Add the meat mixture, and cover the top 
with the remainder of the crumbs. Bake in the oven until the 
mixture is thoroughly heated and the crumbs are brown. 

(3j Broil steak. 

(4) Make stuffed potatoes. 

1 tp. butter ^ tp. hot milk 

I tp. salt pepper 

1 baked potato. 

Cut the baked potato in half, lengthwise, taking care not to 
break the skin; mash the potato, adding the milk, butter and 
seasoning and beat as ordinary mashed potatoes. Place the 
mixture in the potato shell, place in pan and bake in hot oven 
until brown. 

How modify the recipe for six potatoes? 

(5) Stew fruit. 

(0) Prepare the following supper antl estimate cost: 
Baked Potatoes Tomato Salad 
Stewed Fruit Bread and Butter 

Tea or Cocoa 

Should left-overs ])e put in the ice-box or refrigerator in the 
best china? Should they be put there in old dishes that have had 
grease cooked into them? (Use for this purpose cheap bowls, 
plates and cups.) 

Have pupils plan a supj^er for their own homes and prepare 
it there, reporting on the same at school. 

Have pupils plan a supper menu for four people that will 
cost fifty cents. One that will cost sixty cents. One that will 
cost seventy-five cents. 

Criticise the following su})pers for ])eople of different ages and 
occupations: 

(1) Meat (hash fi-oni left over from dinner) 

Baked Potato(>s 

Salad 

Dessert 



Invalid Cookery 157 

(2) Creamed finnan hacldie Brownbread sandwiches 

Fruit Loaf 
Cocoa with jNIarshmallow Whip 

Supplementary: 

1. Should we select foods for the table with reference 
to cost at different seasons? 

2. What are seasonable foods? (Eggs, butter — more ex- 
pensive at some seasons — fresh fruits, new vegetables, etc.) 

3. W^hat foods are canned for household use? Have pupils 
tell what are canned and preserved in their homes. (Review prin- 
ciples of canning 7th and 8th grade outlines.) 

4. Many people buy bread. How can you tell good bread? 
(Review points in 7th and 8th grade work.) 

5. Have pupils write out day's menu with well-balanced 
meals. (Explain.) 

6. Have pupils write out one with poor combination of 
foods. (Explain.) 

7. Write out a time schedule for preparing dinner. When 
to start the cooking of each dish, and order of cooking, so all may 
be ready to serve at proper time. 

8. How may fuel be saved in cooking? What about the 
temperature of boiling water? Simmering water? What about 
turning on a large amount of gas to flame up about the cooking 
vessel when heating water for cooking purposes? 

9. Steps in cooking: 

(1) Grouping food materials and utensils. 

(2) Actual work. 

(3) Cleaning up. 

10. Is it cheaper to buy by the pound or large quantity? On 
what does this depend? What about perishable foods? 

Invalid Cookery: (1 week.) 

It is generally conceded that the diet and care of an invalid 
are indispensable to improvement. 

Every household has, at some time, members who are sick and 
must be cared for in the home. The feeding of the sick then plays 
no unimportant part in family life. 

The appetite of an invalid is fastidious, and must be tempted 
often l)efore it needs satisfaction. 

In serving an invalid a tray should be used just large enough 
for the dishes it is to hold. Cover it with a spotlessly clean napkin 



158 Uniform Course of Study 

or tray cover. Arrange it as if you were setting a place at a table. 
Use the prettiest daintiest dishes you have. 

No food left by the patient sliould be served a second time, 
nor should food that has been in the sick room be eaten by others. 

Food should be prepared in most digestible form for invalids. 
Milk^ — hot or cold, in junket (how made?) should b(> combined 
with eggs in eggnog, custards, etc. 

Eggs — poached, served on toast, dainty omelet, egg kMuonade. 

Mild fruit juice —orange, gra])e, pinea])ple. 

If no fever — chicken, lamb chops, under lnoilcd sicak oi- roast 
beef. 

Broths, cereals, eggs, milks. 

If vegetables, are served only those mild flavored, as asparagus, 
spinach, should be used. 

Coffee spilled in serving, dirty tray cloth, cracked dishes, etc., 
are not appetizing. 

Laboratory: 

Prepare two different trays for sick people and send 
out to them. There may be a sick pupil, teacher, neighbor, or 
some one in the community who can ill afford the n-^cessary nour- 
ishment. 

Health of Household: (1 week.) 

The health of the household depends on sanitary conditions 
and cleanliness. The care of the sleeping rooms is most impor- 
tant in family health. Open wintlows at night. Keep clean room. 
(How make the bed?) Should one sleep under a great amount of 
heavy cover? Care of clothes and linen pieces. Airing room. 

Impress upon pupils that personal care and cleanliness are 
great factors in family health: 

1. Breathe plenty of fresh air. 

2. Clean teeth at least twice a day. 

3. Keep windows of bed room open at night. 

4. Breathe through nose. 

5. Daily bath in hot weather and at least three times a 
week at other seasons. 

6. Keep ears and neck clean. 

7. Keep hair clean. 

8. Keep finger nails clean. 

9. Chew food well. 

10. Drink plenty of pure water daily. 

11. Sleep seven or eight hours a night. 



Scientific Housekeeping 159 

Laboratory: 

(1) Have pupils report on heating, plumbing, water sup- 
ply in their homes. Source of water supply for the community. 

(2) Visit water plant if there is one. 

(3) If doll's bed can be provided or pupils can use a private 
home as a laboratory, instruction should be given in proper bed 
making and care oi bed room. 

(4) How could you make the bed if some one was in it who 
was ill and could not be taken up? 

Scientific Housekeeping: (1 week.) 
Planning of work: 

a. How buy in advance, by the day or week or month 

or year? Reasons for answer. 
6. When should meals be planned? Why? 

c. Why is it better to plan for a day than a single meal? 

d. What do you mean by an emergency shelf? 

e. Should housekeepers attempt to estimate the time in 

which it takes them to do the various household 
tasks? Reason for answer. 

/. Should they compare the plan and order of one day 
with that of another as to comparative amount of 
time and energj- needed in performing the same 
tasks? (Reason for answer.) 

g. Essentials: Sink and table of proper height. Kitchen 
not too large, well ventilated and light, with 
equipment easy of access in order of use. Long 
handled dust pans, brushes. Consideration of new 
methods of cleaning as brush or vacuum cleaner in- 
stead of broom. Fireless cooker. (Can hoys, in 
Manual Training Department make a fireless 
cooker?) Simple not complicated kitchen tools. 
Utensils that are comfortable to hold, grasp and 
handle. 

Laboratory: 

Plan meals for a week. If a cottage or home is used in con- 
nection with the school, groups of gii'ls should take a day to the 
care of such cottage, in planning and currying out work. If 
there is no cottage, let this be done in tlieir own homes and re- 
ports made on it at school. 



160 Uniform Course of Study 

Hovie Nursing: (1 week.) 

In every household the "care of the sick" is a very important 
consideration. Many a prolonged and dangerous illness may be 
avoided by arresting the di; ea^e in the early stages, through proper 
care in the home. 

There are some cases where, as in typhoid fever, recovery 
depends almost wholly upon the care of the patient. 

The nund)er of ])hysicians who prescribe more care and less 
materia nKnlica is a constantly increasing one. 

The following are important points to be considered in this 
study : 

1. Arrangement and Care of the Sick Room. (Located on 
sunny side of house, bright and cheerful, quiet, simply furnished, 
clean, well ventilated, easily darkened or made light. Are flowers 
ever harmful in a sick room? Explain. — Odor too heavy, flowers 
not fresh, etc.) 

2. Care of Patient. (Taking of temperature, giving baths, 
changing garments and bed linen, arrangement of pillows, covers 
of light weight, food. — See Invalid Cookery, etc.) 

3. The Sick Room Nurse or Visitor. (Loud tones and whisp- 
ers to be avoided. Why? If conversing with patient should 
cheerful or gloomy topics be discussed?) 

4. An instructor in home nursing once said, "Always look 
at the label on the bottle three times before giving medicine to a 
patient; once when you take the l)ottle from the shelf or table; 
again when you pour out the medicine; and a third time just be- 
fore you give the medicine to the patient." Why is this extreme 
precaution advised? 

Much expense and needless suffering may be avoided by a 
knowledge, in the home, of simple remedies and how to apply them 
in case of sudden illness or accident, and what to do until the ar- 
rival of the physician if one is needed. 

1. How care for cuts (arteries, veins)? 

2. How care for sprains, bruises, burns, bites, scalds? 

3. How bandage different wounds? 

4. What remedies should be api)lied in case of fainting, 

poisoning (narcotic or irritant poisoning), (h'owning, 
insomnia, sunstroke, ear ache, tooth ache? 

5. How remove foreign bodies from eye? Ear? 

6. What are some simph^ antis(>ptics? (Boric acid, 4% 

solution, is a non-irritating, non-poisonous anti- 
septic.) 



Home Furnishing 161 

Home Furnishing: (1 week.) 

A convenient, healthful home in which the inmates are prop- 
erly fed and have their physical needs met is a splendid institu- 
tion, but unless some attention is given to the attractiveness of 
the household and the social life of the members, the young 
people will want to wander off into other homes and communi- 
ties and the older ones will miss an element in their lives that 
helps take the drudgery out of work and creates a l^etter atmos- 
phere. 

Points to keep in mind in decorating and furnishing a home 
that it may be attractive and artistic: 

(/) Vnity. (What do you mean by this? Does it mean that 
rugs, curtains, walls must be of same color? (Explain.) It 
refers to proper relation of shapes, lines, dark and light, color.) 
Does the decoration of one room affect in any way the decoration 
of another opening into it? Why? 

{2) Simplicity: 

a. Are a few good pictures or many poor ones desirable? 

h. Should people who are beginning housekeeping, try 
to buy everything at once or a few essentials that 
are good and add to them from time to time? 

c. How many of your acquaintances have discarded 

old furniture because it was not properly selected 
in the first place? 

d. Adaptability to income? A home of four rooms (liv- 

ing room, dining room, kitchen, bedroom), was 
neatly furnished in Indianapolis at an entire cost 
of $150.00? The income of the family was $600.00? 
Was that cheap or expensive for that income? 
The house was artistic and attractive, yet the wall 
decorations, furniture and furnishings were inex- 
pensive. Is money an essential in making an at- 
tractive home? Is taste more essential? 

e. Color, good lines, wall decorations, floor finish, etc., 

are points to be taken into account in such a study. 
Laboratory: 

1. Pupils plan a living room and its wall decoration, floor 
finish, draperies, pictures and furniture. Criticize one another's 
plans. 

2. Let pupils describe homes they have seen that are artistic 
and those that are not. 

11 — 4077 



162 Uniform Course of Study 

E. OUTLINE OF WORK IN AGRICULTURE 

Pre-vocational subjects in the high school must be taught not 
less than five periods weekly throughout the year, with double 
periods allotted for laboratory exercises, in order to be credited 
for graduation. 

There should be no attempt to teach the broad general sub- 
ject of agriculture, but rather some specific phase, the selection of 
which will depend upon local conditions and the preparation of 
the teacher who is to present the subject. In most cases the cal- 
endar becomes a factor in determining the work from week to 
week. The skilled teacher will be quick to correlate this work with 
the instruction in botany, zoology, chemistry, or physics, or, 
where the pupils have not had the benefit of instruction in these 
subjects, to supplement by simple explanations. 

A number of subjects are outlined in the course, some of which 
will constitute sufficient work for a year, others for a half year 
each, and in case so much time can be given, a sequence may be 
arranged running through two or three years. A knowledge of 
the soil and of its products or crops is fundamental and these 
subjects should receive first attention, to be followed, if desired, 
by instruction in other special topics. 

The Department of Public Instruction has published a de- 
tailed course of study for agriculture which gives references to 
helpful literature. This should be followed by teachers of this 
subject (See Courses of Study in Agriculture, State Department 
Bulletin, No. 15, pages 109 to 176). 

The above course of study may be had upon application to the 
State Department of Public Instruction. 



MUSIC 



Provision for the teaching of Music at least one period a week 
(luring the four years of the high school work is required. It is 
an elective in all commissioned high schools unless the local 
school authorities rule to the contrary. 

Credit toward graduation may be granted for work-in Music 
in i)roportion to the amount of time given the subject. 

If Music is taken one hour per week for one year, one-fourth 
of one credit may be granted, and one credit or one half unit for 
the four years' course. 

If credit beyond this is given for Music work it must be in 
accordance with the plan for the other subjects, in that there 
must be preparation and actual hours of recitation which may be 
credited in proportion to the hours spent. 

It is well to note that these credits do not count as college 
entrance credits in Indiana colleges. 

The vitality of a course of music in high schools is determined 
by three elements: First, the attitude of the students toward the 
subject; second, the musical material; and, last, the teacher. Of 
these determining factors, the first depends largely upon the sec- 
ond and third. Given a supply of good music that appeals to the 
pupils and given also an enthusiastic and inspiring teacher, the 
best possible beginning has been made. 

Many standard high school music books offer a good selec- 
tion of material, and most publishing houses carry a good line of 
the right sort of supplementary music, costing only a few cents 
a copy. 

Generally speaking, music with good strong words should be 
selected. Avoid the commonplace both in music and w^ords. 
But it must be pleasing to the pupils or they will not enter heart- 
ily enough into the work to make their music study a real means 
of education. 

Variety in the music to be used is necessary, and this applies 
to each lesson; hard work can be gotten from a music class through 
an entire music period if the pieces offer sharp contrast to one 
another. Unison songs are good because they unite the class in 
the same melody, thus emphasizing the idea of unity. Part 

163 



164 Uniform Course of Study 

songs are good for a different reason. They appeal to and educate 
the sense of harmony and widen the musical horizon of the pupils. 
It will be wise to use both kinds of songs. 

During the music lesson no time should be lost and the sub- 
ject should not be allowed to drag. If a piece proves not to be 
acceptable upon any particular day, it is wise policy to quietly 
turn to some other more congenial song. Do not work too long 
upon any one difficulty; stop when the interest stops, other things 
being equal. In taking up a new song, it is wise to sing it through 
without halting to correct mistakes. This gives the class a chance 
to grasp the song as a whole and to seize upon its general spirit ; 
it also forces reading the music more into prominence, since the 
attention is fixed upon the rendering almost exclusively. If pos- 
sible the work should be so planned that a new song could be 
started in every lesson, or at least every alternate lesson. 

It is of the utmost importance that the pupils be taught to 
keep time for themselves and not to depend upon either the teach- 
er or their neighbors. This result may be secured by diligent 
work, the class counting the time of a few measures while the 
teacher plays. Then they should mentally feel these coun ts 
when they sing. 

The voices should be kept up; the vitality and character of the 
voice do not appear unless the tones are placed well above the 
throat. This, like keeping time referred to in the last paragraph, 
is one of the good habits pupils should gain from their work in 
music. Generally speaking, when any piece is sung only indiffer- 
ently well, it is largely the poor placing of the voice which is at 
fault. 

Besides vocal music, the pupils may, under favorable condi- 
tions, become acquainted with some good standard instrumental 
pieces. In most high schools some of the pupils play the piano 
or other instruments skillfully, and the teacher will do well to 
have such pupils plajj for their fellow pupils. 

The use of music reproducing instruments is heartily endorsed 
and is coming into prominence in the schools as in the home. A 
piano player is of great value in the presentation of the best com- 
positions of the greatest composers and adds greatly to musical 
appreciation, which is a part of musical and cultural education. 

The Graphonola, the Victrola and the Edison Phonograph 
are especially valuable in that they are portable and easily taken 
from room to room. The range of selections covers instrumental, 
vocal, orchestral, and band compositions. 



Music 165 

Courses of instruction may easily be arranged so that the A>ork 
of a special composer or a group of composers may be studied and 
appreciated. 

In this way musical taste may be developed in a way impos- 
sible before the development of these instruments. 

In purchasing such instruments the fact should be borne in 
mind that money expended above a certain amount is for differ- 
ence in case and does not increase the musical value of the in- 
strument. The money is better invested in additional records 
than in a fancy case. 

It will be well for the teacher to say a word or two, if possible, 
of explanation of the music or perhaps say a few words about the 
composer. The best results will be obtained by keeping the work 
as informal as possible. 

In conclusion it is well to emphasize the fact that it is the pupil 
and not the subject which should be the teacher's chief care. No 
teacher who understands the subject of music thoroughly will go 
far astray if she does not forget the pupil in her anxiety to teach 
the subject. 

The following is a list of selections suitable for high school 
music, graded according to the degree of difficulty: 

High School Music 
CODA 

{Ginn & Co.) 

Easy: 
No. 

32 Spring's Bright Glances (Somnaml)ula) 2c 

293 A Sailor's Song (Harper) 3c 

44 Happy and Light (Bohemian Girl) 2c 

323 King of the Forest Am I (Parker) 4c 

379 The Soldier's Dream, Paul Rodney 4c 

256 The Old Guard 4c 

34 Come to the Fair (Martha) 2c 

297 The Clang of the Forge, Paul Rodnej^ 3c 

259 In the Harbor We've Been Sheltered (Martha) 3c 

288 Sailing Marks 3c 

43 Pretty Village Maiden (Faust) 2c 

70 Away, the Morning Freshly l^r(>aking 2c 

255 Join in Pleasure (Erminie) 3c 



166 Uniform Course of Study 

192 Gloria from Twelfth Mass, Mozart 3c 

203 Five Favorite Anthems 2c 

220 Let our Voices Be Glad, Lecocq 4c 

186 Gloria, Viezie 2c 

341 The Forge, Watson 4c 

Medium Difficult: 

327 O Lord, How Manifold, Barnby 4c 

221 The Lawn Party (Waltz Song), Lecocq 5c 

311 Olaf Trygvason, Grieg 5c 

134 Summer Morning, H. Smart 2c 

61 The Vesper Bells, J. Eichberg 3c 

149 Awake! Awake! the Flowers Unfold, Leslie 2c 

202 Jubilate Deo, B. Tours 2c 

112 Wiegenlied, J. L. Frank 2c 

99 May Day Sports, Gounod 2c 

Difficult: 

333 The Joy of the Hunter, Weber 4c 

181 As Pants the Hart, Spohr 2c 

329 Wake! to the Hunting, H. Smart 3c 

275 Lady, Rise, Sweet Morn's Awaking, H. Smart 4c 

83 'Tis May Day Morn, J. L. Hatton 2c 

240 The Miller's Wooing, Faning 5c 

377 Day Break, Faning 6c 

280 Song of Peace, Sullivan 4c 

162 Heaven and the Earth Display, Mendelssohn . 3c 

201 Bridal Chorus from Rose Maiden 5c 

The Laurel Octavo 
(C C. Birchard & Co., Boston, Mass.) 
Easy: 

No. 

141 Lullaby from Erminie, Jakobowski 3c 

30 The Barefoot Boy, Johns 3c 

109 Concord Hymn, Birge 3c 

32 The Flag, Henry K. Hadley 4c 

. 128 Santa Lucia 2c 

16 A Merry Life, Denza 3c 

25 Uncrowned Kings, Loomis 4c 



Music 167 

134 Freedom's Banner, Harvey 

118 The Banner of the Free, Jude 

Medium Difficult: 

130 0, Hush Thee, My Baby, Sullivan 2c 

20 June, Schnecker 3c 

140 Song of Illyrian Peasants, Schnecker 3c 

37 The Flower of Liberty, Neidlinger 4c 

13 The Recessional, Huss 

Djfficult: 

127 0, My Love's Like a Red, Red Rose, Garrett 3c 

10 0, Captain, My Captain, Edgar S. Kelly Gc 

1 Beautiful Blue Danube, Strauss 

87 Honor and Arms, Handel 

72 Jersualem (Gallia), Gounod 

The Jennings Collection 
(The Geo. B. Jennings Co., Cincinnati, Ohio) 
Easy: 

No. 

8 It is Better to Laugh (Lucretia Borgia) 2c 

79 A Rose in Heaven, Abt 2c 

23 Oh! Hail Us, Ye Free, Verdi 3c 

27 Praise Ye the Father, Gounod 2c 

91 Soldier's Chorus, Gounod 3c 

87 Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming, Foster 2c 

65 Battle Hymn, Wagner 2c 

26 The God of Israel, Rossini 3c 

57 Hark! the Lark, Dr. Cooke 2c 

Medium Difficult: 

92 Who Knows What the Bells Say? Parker 2c 

58 Song for Spring, E. Silas 2c 

50 Mighty Jehovah, BelHni 4c 

24 The Dawn of Day, Hastie 2c 

75 The Gallant Troubadour, Watson 4c 

90 The Lost Chord, Sullivan 3c 

67 The Morning Sweetly Breaking, Rossini 2c 



168 Uniform Course of Study 

49 Unfold, Yet Portals, Gounod 3c 

63 Sleep, Gentle Lady, Bishop 2c 

66 I A\'ill Gall Upon the Lord, Mozart 4c 

Dijficnlt: 

47 Hail the Glorious Dawn (Lucia) 2c 

20 Gypsy Life, Schumann 3c 

14 How Lovely Are the Messengers, Mendelssohn 3c 

13 He Watching Over Israel, Mendelssohn 3c 

12 Be Not Afraid, Mendelssohn 3c 

44 Light and Gray, Gounod 4c 

86 Pilgrim's Chorus, Wagner 2c 

74 Lovely June, Arditi 3c 

48 Rise! Sleep No More, Benedict 3c 

45 As the Hart Pants, Mendelssohn 3c 

93 Zion, Awake, Costa 4c 

Beacon Series 

{Silver, Burdett & Co.) 

Easy: 

No. 

141 Recessional, Boyd 2c 

163 God of Our Fathers, Custance 5c 

26 0, How Fair, Romberg 3c 

82 The Lord is Great, Mendelssohn 4c 

38 Wanderer, Schubert 3c 

53 Men of Harlech 3c 

230 The Heavens Resounding, Beethoven 3c 

76 Prayer During Battle, Hummel 3c 

40 Lovely Night, Chwatel 3c 

118 Joy, Joy, Freedom, Benedict 6c 

120 The Banner of the Free, Richards 4c 

Medium Difficult: 

45 O Lord Most Merciful,, Concone 3c 

151 The Quietude of Night (Cavalleria Rusticana), Mascagni4c 

150 Marching Along, Stanford 5c 

234 Summer Fancies (Waltz), Metra 5c 

Damascus Trium])hal March, Costa 6c 

75 Song of the Vikings, Faning 3c 



Music 169 

Difficult: 

106 The Heavens Are Telling, Haydn 6c 

23 The Water Lily, Gade 3c 

237 Estudiantina, Lacone 5c 

96 County Fair Waltz, Abt 6c 

14 And the Glory of the Lord (Messiah) 5c 

High School Music Books and Song Collections 

Beacon Song Collection No. 1. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Beacon Song Collection No. 2. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

The Euterpean. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

The Fourth Modern Music Reader. Silver, Burdett & Co. 

The Laurel Song Book. C. C. Birchard & Co. 

Natural Advanced Music Reader. (American Book Com- 
pany.) 

Part Songs and Choruses for High Schools. (American Book 
Company.) 

Corona Song Book. (Ginn & Co.) 

The Complete Music Reader. (D. C. Heath & Co.) 

Necollin's Glee and Chorus Book. — A. B. C. 

Cantatas 

King Rene's Daughter, Women's Voices, Smart. (Beacon 
Series, Silver, Burdett & Co.) 

The Norman Baron, Auderton. (Beacon Series, Silver, Bur- 
dett & Co.) 

The Building of the Ship, Labee. (Beacon Series.) 

The Lady of Shalott, Women's Voices, Bendall. (Natural 
Course Leaflets.) American Book Company. 



DRAWING 



Provision for the teaching of Drawing at least one period a 
week, (luring the four years of high school work, is required in all 
certified and commissioned high schools. It is an elective sub- 
ject unless the local school authorities rule to the contrary. 
Credit toward graduation may be granted for work in Drawing in 
proportion to the amount of time given the subject. 

If Drawing is taken one hour per week for one year, one-fourth 
of one credit may be granted, and one credit or one-half unit for 
the four years' course. 

If any credit beyond this is given for Drawing work it must be 
in accordance with the plan for the other subjects, in that there 
must be preparation and actual hours of recitation which may be 
credited, in proportion to the hours spent. 

It is well to note that these credits do not count as college en- 
trance credits in Indiana colleges. 

The first essential in the teaching of drawing is a teacher who 
has been well trained in the subject. Such training should have 
been taken in a good art school. 

The Board makes the suggestion that it is advisable for the 
smaller towns and cities situated in the same territory to unite in 
the employment of a teacher or director of drawing. In this way 
a really competent and trained teacher of the subject can be se- 
cured. 

Two suggested courses follow : 

COURSE I 
First Half Year 

1. Drawing and painting of plant studies. 

2. Drawing of objects singly and in groups — in outline and 
limited tone values. 

3. Study of the principles of perspective. Drawing in outline. 

Second Half Year 

1. Course of Study outlined for the first half year wath re- 
quirement of higher standard of technique. 

(170) 



Drawing 171 

2. Study of the elementary principles of decorative design. 
Drawing and painting borders and surface patterns. 

COURSE II 

First Half Year 

Media: Pencil, charcoal, water color, and simple craft ma- 
terials. 

1. Nature Study — landscape, trees, plants. 

2. Elements of pictorial composition in landscape, tree and 
plant work. 

3. Principles of perspective and their application. 

4. Still life composition. 

5. Decorative design: 

(a) The study of foundation principles of design in good 

buildings, furniture, rugs, book covers, dishes, etc. 

(b) The production of design with nature an d abstract 

motives. 

(c) The application of design in stenciling, wood block 

printing or some other line of craft work. 

6. The study of a few masterpieces of architecture, sculp- 
ture and painting in connection with the civilization that pro- 
duced them. 

Second Half Year 

1. Course of study outlined for the first half year with re- 
quirement of higher standard of technique. 

2. Application of the decorative work in a line of craft work 
differing from that of the first half of the year. 

3. Study of the figure. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



COMMISSIONED HIGH SCHOOLS 



Acton. 

Advance.* 

Akron. 

Albany. 

Albion.* 

Alexandria. 

Arabia.* 

Amboy. 

Arao. (Clay Tp.) 

Anderson. 

Andrews. 

Angola. 

Arcadia.* 

Argos. 

Ashley.* 

Atlanta.* 

Attica. 

Aulnirn. 

Aurora. 

Austin.* 

Avilla.* 

Batesville. 

Battle Ground. 

Baugo Township, P. O. Osceola. 

Beaver Dara, P. O. Mentone.* 

Ben Davis.* 

Bedford. 

Berne. 

Bicknell. 

Black Hawk. 

Blind Institute, Indianapolis. 

Bloomfield. 

Blooniington. 

* Com mission expired June :U), 191G. 



Bluff ton. 

Boggstown. 

Boone Grove. 

Boonville. 

Boswell.* 

Bourbon. 

Brazil. 

Bremen. 

Bringhurst. 

Bristol. 

Broad Ripple. 

Brook. 

Brookston. 

Brookville. 

Brownsburg. 

Brownstown. 

Bruceville. 

Bryant. 

Buck Creek. 

Bunker Hill. 

Burket.* 

Burlington. 

Burnettsville. (Burnett's Creek 

P. O.) 
Burney. 
Butler. 
Butler Tp.* 
Cadiz.* 

Cambridge City. 
Camden. 
Campbellsburg. 
Cannelton. 
Carlisle. 
Carmel. 



(172) 



Commissioned High Schools 



173 



Carthage. 

Castleton. 

Cayuga.* 

Center Grove.* 

Centerville. 

Chalmers.* 

Charlestown.* 

Charlotte ville. 

Chesterton. 

Chester Township (P. O. 

N. Manchester). 
Chippewa (P. O. Wabash), 
Chrisney.* 
Churubusco. 
Cicero.* 
Clarksburg. 
Clark's Hill.* 
Clark Tp.* 
Clay City. 
Claypool.* 
Clayton. 
Clear Springs.* 
Clinton. 
Cloverdale. 
Coalmont.* 
Coesse. 
Colfax. 

College Corner, Ohio.* 
Columbia City. 
Columbus. 
Connersville. 
Converse. 
Cortland.* 
Corydon. 
Covington. 
Cowan.* 
Crawfords ville. 
Cromwell. 
Crown Point. 
C rot hers ville. 



Culver. 

Cumberland. 

Cutler. 

Cynthiana. 

Dale.* 

Dale ville.* 

Dana. 

Danville. 

Darlington. 

Dayton.* 

Decatur. 

Decker. 

Delphi. 

Deputy.* 

DeSoto. 

Dubhn. 

Dunkirk. 

Earl Park. 

East Chicago. 

Eaton. 

Economy.* 

Edinburg. 

Edwardsport. 

Elkhart. 

Ellettsville. 

Elnora.* 

Elwood.* 

Eminence.* 

Emison. 

English. 

Epsom.* 

Etna Green. 

Evansville. 

Evans\dlle (Colored). 

Fairland. 

Fair mount. 

Farmersburg. 

Farmland. 

Flat Rock Tp.* 

Flora. 



♦Commission cxpir d June 30, 1916. 



174 



Uniform Course of Study 



Fontanct.* 

Forest.* 

Fort Brancli. 

Fortville. 

Fort Wayne. 

Fountain City. 

Fowler. 

Francesville. 

Francisco. 

Frankfort. 

Franklin. 

Frankton. 

Freedom.* 

Freelandville. 

Fremont.* 

French Lick.* 

Fritchton. 

Fulton.* 

Galveston.* 

Garrett. 

Gary. 

Emerson. 

Froebel . 
Gas City. 
Gaston. 
Geneva.* 

German Tp.*(Taylorsville, P.O. 
Gilead. 
Glenn. 
Goldsmith. 
Goodland. 
Goshen. 
Gosport. 

Gov. I. P. Gray.* 
Grand view.* 
Grass Creek. 
Green (P. O. Ridgeville). 
Green castle.* 
Greenfield. 
Grcensburg. 
Greensfork. 



Greenwood. 

Grove rtown.* 

Hagerstown. 

Hamilton. 

Hamlet.* 

Hammond. 

Hanna. 

Harlan. 

Hartford City. 

Haubstadt.* 

Hazelton.* 

Hebron. 

Helt Tp. (Dana P. 0.). 

Henry ville.* 

Hillsboro. 

Hobart. 

Holton.* 

Hope.* 

Hopewell (P. 0. Franklin). 

Hudson. 

Huntingburg. 

Huntington. 

Hunts ville. 

Hymera. 

Idaville. 

Indianapolis — 
Manual Training. 
Short ridge. 
Technical. 

Inwood. 

Ireland.* 

Jackson (P.O. Union City.) 

Jackson Tp. (P. O. New Rich- 
mond). 

Jamestown.* 

Jasonvillo. 

Jasper. 

Jefferson.* 

Jefferson Center.* 

Jeffersonville. 

Jonesboro. 



♦Commission expired June 30, 1916. 



Commissioned High Schools 



175 



Kempton.* 

Kendallville. 

Kentland. 

Kennard.* 

Ke wanna.* 

Kingman. 

Kirklin.* 

Knightstown. 

Knox. 

Kokomo. 

Kouts. 

LaCrosse. 

Ladoga.* 

Lafayette. 

Lafontaine. 

Lagrange. 

Lagro. 

Laketon. 

Lakeville. 

La Otto.* 

Lapel. 

Laporte. 

Larvvill.* 

Lawrenceburg. 

Leavenworth. 

Lebanon. 

Leo.* 

Letts. 

Lewisville.* (Franklin Tp.) 

Liberty. 

Liberty Center. 

Liberty Tp. (Greentown P.0.) = 

Ligonier. 

Lima (Howe P. O.). 

Lincoln. 

Lincoln ville.* 

Linden. 

Linlawn (P. 0. Wabash). 

Linton. 

Lizton. 

Logansport. 

♦Commission e.xpired June 30, 1916. 



Loogootee. 

Lowell. 

Luce Tp. (P. (). Lake). 

Lucerne. 

Lynn. 

Lyons.* 

McCorcls ville. 

McKinley (P. O. Winchester). 

Madison. 

Madison (Colored).* 

Manilla. 

Marengo. 

Marion. 

Markle. 

Martinsville. 

Matthews. 

Maumee Tp. (Woodburn P.O.) 

Mecca. 

Medaryville. 

Medora.* 

Mellott. 

Mentone. 

Metea.* 

Michigan City. 

Michigantown.* 

Middle bury. 

Middletown. 

Milan. 

Milford. 

Millersburg 

Milltown.* 

Milroy. 

Milton. 

Mishawaka. 

Mitchell. 

Modoc. 

Monon. 

Monroe (Adams Co.). 

Monroe (Randolph Co., P. O. 

Parker). 
Monroe City. 



176 



Uniform Course of Study 



Monroeville. 

Monrovia.* 

Monterey.* 

Montezuma.* 

Monticello. 

Montmorenci. 

Montpelier. 

Moreland. 

Mooresville. 

Morgantown.* 

Morocco. 

Morristown. 

Mount Auburn (Edinburg P.O.^ 

Mt. Summit. 

Mount Vernon. 

Mulberry. 

Muncie. 

Nappanee.* 

Nashville. 

Needmore.* 

New Albany. 

New Albany (Colored). 

New Augusta. 

New Bethel (P. 0. Wanamaker) 

Newburgh. 

New Carlisle. 

Newcastle. 

New Harmony. 

New Haven.* 

New Lisbon.* 

New London.* 

New Market. 

New Palestine.* 

New Pans. 

Newport.* 

New Richmond. 

Newtown. 

New Winchester.* 

Ninevah. 

Noblesville. 

North Bend.* 



North Judson.* 

North Liberty.* 

North Manchester.* 

North Salem. 

North Vernon. 

Oakland City. 

Oaklandon. 

Oaktown. 

Odon. 

Onward.* 

Orland. 

Orleans. 

Osgood. 

Ossian.* 

Otterbein. 

Otwell.* 

Owensville.* 

Oxford. 

PaoH. 

Paragon. 

Patoka.* 

Pekin.* 

Pendleton. 

Pennville. 

Perry sville. 

Peru. 

Petersburg. 

Petroleum.* 

Pierce ton.* 

Pimento. 

Pine Village. 

Pittsboro.* 

Plainfield.* 

Plain ville. 

Pleasant Lake. 

Pleasantville.* 

Plymouth. 

Poling. 

Portland. 

Posey ville. 

Princeton. 



♦Commission expired June 30, 1910. 



Commissioned High Schools 



177 



Princeton (Col.). 

Pulaski.* 

Raub. 

Redkey. 

Remington. 

Rensselaer. 

Reynolds. 

Richmond. 

Ridge ville. 

Riley. 

Rising Sun. 

Roachdale. 

Roann. 

Roanoke. 

Rochester. 

Rockport. 

Rockville. 

Roll.* 

Rolling Prairie. 

Rome City. 

Romney. 

Rosedale.* 

Rossville. 

Royal Center. 

Royerton.* 

Rushville. 

Russellville. 

Russiaville. 

St. Joe.* 

St. Paul. 

Salem. 

Sandborn. 

Saratoga.* 

Scircleville. 

Seottsburg. 

Selma. 

Seymour. 

Sharpsville.* 

Shelbyville. 

Sheridan. 

Shipshewana. 

♦Commission expired June 30, 191G. 

12 — 4077 



Shoals. 

Sidney.* 

Silver Lake. 

Smithville. 

Somerset.* 

South Bend. 

South Milford. 

Southport. 

South Whitley.* 

Spartanburg (P. O. Crete). 

Spencer. 

Spencerville.* 

Star City. 

State Normal High School 

Staunton.* 

Stewartsville. 

Stilesville. 

StiUwell. 

Stinesville.* 

Stockwell. 

Straughn.* 

Sullivan. 

Summitville. 

Swayzee. 

Sweetser.* 

Switz City. 

Syracuse.* 

Tangier. 

Tell City. 

Terre Haute — 

Garfield. 

Wiley. 
Thorntown. 
Tipton. 
Tocsin.* 
Topeka, 
Trafalgar.* 
Troy.* 
Tunnelton.* 
Twelve Mile. 
Tyner.* 



178 



Uniform Course of Study 



Union City. 

Union Mills. 

Union Tp. (Johnson Co.).* 

Upland. 

Urbana. 

Valley Mills. 

Vallonia.* 

Valparaiso. 

Van Buren. 

Veedersburg. 

Versailles. 

Vevay. 

Vincennes. 

Wabash. 

Wadesville. 

Wadena.* 

Wakarusa. 

Waldron. 

Walkerton.* 

Wallace. 

Walnut Grove (Arcadia P.O.) 

Walton.* 

Wanatah. 

Warren. 

Warsaw. 

Washington. 

Washington Center 

(Whitley Co.).* 
Waterloo. 
Waveland. 
Wawaka. 
Wayne. 
Waynetown. 
Wea (P. O. Lafayette). 

♦Commission expired June 30. 19 IG. 



Webster.* 

West Baden.* 

Westfield. 

West Lafayette. 

Westland. 

West Lebanon. 

West Middleton.* 

West Newton. 

Westpoint. 

Westport 

West Terre Haute. 

Westville. 

Wheatfield. 

Wheatland. 

Wheeler. 

Whiteland. 

Whitestown.* 

White Water. 

Whiting. 

Wilkinson. 

Williamsburg. 

Williamsport. 

Winamac. 

Winchester. 

Windfall.* 

Wingate. 

Winslow.* 

Wolcott. 

Wolcottville. 

Wolf Lake. 

Worthington. 

Yorktown.* 

Young America. 

Zionsville. 



CERTIFIED HIGH SCHOOLS 



Alamo. 

Alquina (Fayette Co.). 

Anderson Tp. (Perry Co.). 

Arlington. 

AtwoocL* 

Bainbridge. 

Banquo.* 

Bellmore. 

Bippus.* 

Birdseye. 

Boone Twp. (Harrison Co.). 

Borden. 

Bowers. 

Boxle3^* 

Bridgeton. 

Bristow. 

Brooklyn.* 

Bryantsville. 

Butlerville. 

Cannelburg (Daviess Co.). 

Center (Rush Co.). 

Center Pohit (Clay Co.). 

Centralized (Starke C'o.). 

Clay Tp. (Pike Co.). 

C/lear Creek Center.* 

Cory. 

Crisman. 

Cuzco. 

Deedsville. 

Deer Creek.* 

Denver. 

De Paiiw. 

Dugger. 

Dunnington Parochial.* 

♦Certificate expired Juno ;iOth, 191 (j. 



Dupont.* 

Dyer. 

Elberfield. 

Elizabeth. 

Fairbanks Tp. 

Fairview Tp.* 

Fayetteville.* 

Fillmore. 

Fishers. 

Flint. 

Folsomville.* 

Freeland Park. 

Georgetown.* 

Gilboa.* 

Graysville. 

Griffin.* 

Hayden. 

Helmsl)urg.* 

Heltonville. 

Holland (Dubois Co.). 

Houston.* 

Huron. 

Jackson Tp. (Spencer Co.).* 

(Gentryville P. 0.). 
Jefferson Tp. (P. O. Coal City). 
Kent.* 
Keystone.* 
Lancaster Center.* 
Lapaz. 

Lawrence.* 
Lecsburg.* 
Lciter's Ford.* 
Leopold.* 
Lock hart Tp. 



(179) 



180 



Uniform Course of Study 



Losantvillp. 


Owensburg. 


Lynnville. 


Palmyra.* 


McCainprnn Tp. (Martin Co.). 


Paris Crossing.* 


Mace.* 


Patriot. 




Prairie Creek. 


Mackey. 


Quincy 


Macy.* 


Raleigh. 


Marco. 


Richland Center (Fulton Co.).* 




Rock Creek Center. (Hunting 


Marshall. 


ton Co.).* 


Mauckport. 


Rockfield.* 


Maxwell.* 


Rome.* 


Monitor. 


Rykers Ridge.* 


Monroe Tp. (Pike Co.). 


Saluda. 


Montgomery. 


Scipio. 


Monument City. 


Scotland.* 


Moorefield. 


Sedaha.* 


Moscow. 


Selvin. 


Mt. Comfort.* 




Mt. Olympus. 


Springville. 


New Amsterdam. 


Spurgeon. 


Newberry (Green Co.).* 


Sugar Ridge Tp. 


New Lebanon. 


Talma. 


New Middletown.* 


Tennyson. 


New Ross.* 


Tobinsport. 




Union Center (Huntington Co.). 


New Salem. 




New Salisbury. 


Union Tp. (Perry Co.) 



New Washington. 
New Waverly.* 
North Madison. 
North Webster. 
Oil Tp. 
Oolitic* 

Orange (Orange Tp., Fayette 
Co.). 

♦Certificate expired June 30, 1916. 



Van Buren Tp. (P. O. Colum- 
bus, R. 32.) 

Vernon.* 

Washington Tp. (P. O. Mar- 
shall.) 

West Tp. (Marshall Co.) 
Williams. 



ACCREDITED HIGH SCHOOLS 



Avon. 

Beech Grove. 

Bentonville (Fayette Co.), 

Center Point. 

Decker Tp. (Knox Co.). 

Eden. 

Eli z abet ht own. 

Fount aintown. 

Freetown. ♦• 

Ging. 

Gladden's Corner.* 

Glenwood. 

Greendale. 

Guilford. 

Gwynneville. 

Harrison. 

Hillsdale. 

Jackson Tp. 

Judyville. 

Kingsbury. 

Liberty Tp. 

Lincoln. 



*Accreclitmeiit expired June 30, 1916. 



Maple Grove. 

Merrillville. 

Midland. 

Milan Center. 

Newpoint. 

North Grove. 

Osborn. 

Petersville. 

Rock Creek Tp. 

Rockfield. 

Ross. 

Saltillo. 

San Pierre. 

Scott. 

Shelby. 

Stone Bluff. 

Stroh. 

Sulphur Springs. 

Water ford. 

Waterloo (Fayette Co.). 

Washington Tp. (Porter Co.). 

Westphaha. 

Wheeling. 



(181) 



PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

{Commissioned High School Standing) 

Academy of The Immaculate Conception Oldenburg 

Academy of The Immaculate Conception Ferdinand 

All Saints Academy Hammod 

Bloomingdale Academy Bloomingdale* 

Central Academj^ Plainfield 

Central CathoHc High School Fort Wayne 

Central College — Academy Huntington 

Central Normal College — Academic Department Danville 

De Pauw Academy Greencastle 

Fairmount Academy Fairmount 

Goshen Academy Goshen 

Hanover Academy Hanover 

Indiana Central University — Academy University Heights 

Interlaken School Rolling Prairie 

Jasper College . Jasper 

King-Crawford Classical School Terre Haute 

Manchester Academy North Manchester 

Marion Normal Institute Marion 

Moore's Hill Academy Moore's Hill 

Muncie Normal Institute Muncie 

Oakland City Academy .Oakland City 

Sacred Heart Academy Fort Wayne 

Sacred Heart Academy Fowler 

St. Agnes Academy Indianapolis 

St. Augustine Academy Fort Wayne 

St. Catherine's Academy Fort Wayne 

St. John's Academy Indianapolis 

St. Joseph's Academy ' . . . Hammond 

St. Joseph's Academy South P.end 

St. Joseph's Academy Terre Haute 

St. Joseph's Academy Tipton 

St. Joseph's College Collegeville 

St. Mary of the Woods St. Mary's 

St. Mary's Academy Notre Dame 

St. Rose Academy Vincennes 

Spiceland Academy Spiceland 

(182) 



Private Schools 183 

Taylor University Upland 

Theological Institute Fairmount 

Tri-State College Angola 

Tudor Hall Indianapolis 

Union Christian Academy Merom 

Valparaiso University Valparaiso 

Vincennes Academy Vincennes 

Weidner Institute Mulberry 

Winona Academy Winona Lake 



HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY 

The suggestive list of library reference books does not appear 
in this Course of Study. The Library Committee appointed 
by the State Board of Education is making a careful preparation of 
this list and same will be printed under separate cover and for- 
warded to school officials latei'. 

FOR INDIANA YOUNG PEOPLE'S READING CIRCLE 

BOOKS 

1. Notice. — Any of the books listed Ir.'low will be sent pre- 
paid for the price stated. 

2. Books can be sent by parcel post. Orders for less than a set 
will usually be sent by parcel post as it is cheaper than express 
and more convenient for the purchaser. 

3. Give name of county in which books will be used. 

4. Please remit l)y Money Order, Draft or Registered Letter. 

LIST OF INDIANA YOUNG PEOPLE'S READING CIRCLE 
BOOKS FOR 1916-17 

Second Grade 

So-Fat and Mew-Mew ."yo . 16 

Mewanee; the Indian Boy 23 

Peter and Polly in Winter 31 

Pretty Polly Flinders 40 

Third Grade 

Gockel, Hinkle and Gackelia 10 . 30 

GHmpses of Pioneer Life 30 

Chats in the Zoo 35 

Adventures of Reddy Fox 40 

Fourth and Fifth Grades 

The Weaver's CLildren $0.31 

Sure Pop and the Safety Scouts 31 

A Dog of Flanders 35 

The Riley Reader 43 

What Gladys Saw 65 

(I.S4) 



Young People's Reading Circle Books 185 

Sixth and Seventh Grades 

Polly of the Hospital Staff $0 . 60 

The Call of the Wild 77 

The Barnstormers 72 

Uncle Abner's Legacy 77 

Phylhs 84 

Advanced Grades 

By Reef and Trail $ . 60 

Johnny Appleseed .85 

Athletic Training .■ 60 

Profitable Vocations for Boys 72 

Florence Nightingale 73 

Panama; The New Route to India 90 

Set of twenty-four books 12 . 60 

JOHN F. HAINES, MANAGER 

Indiana Young People's Reading Circle 

615 Ltmcke Building, Indianapohs, Ind.